Writing Assignments

WritingAssignments

Writingassignment2:

Theuseof arroganceto enforcehumility

Theconceptof humilityhas differentlevels of significancein differentcommunitiesandculturalgroups.Thepracticeof humilityinvolvesunderstandingone’s limitsandappreciatingthestrengths,intentions,andperspectivesof otherpeople.In mostcommunities(includingtheBushmen), peopleare expectedto demonstratetheir senseof humilitywhencircumstancesoreventsprovidedthem with theopportunityto displaytheir ego.In addition,theBushmen communitydescribedby Lee (1969) demonstratesthathumilitygivespeoplethedesireandtheabilityarticulates their relationshipwith peoplearound them. Thispaperaddressestheconceptof humilityusingthecasestudyof theBushmen of theTswana tribesas discussedin thearticle“Eating Christmas in theKalahari”. Lee(1969) indicatesthat,althoughthearroganceof theBushmen is hurting,itis an effectivewayof enforcinghumilityto both theBushmen andnon-Bushmen guests.

Ceremoniesare partof thelifelongprocessthat communitiesuseto learnvalues,attitudes,andbehaviorsthatare consideredto be suitablefortheirculture.Lee(1969) discussestheculturalsignificanceof theChristmas celebrationsamong theBushmen, whosemechanicalsolidarity ischaracterizedby acommonlifestyle of enforcinghumilitythrough arrogance.In addition,itis evidentthattheBushmen valuefamiliesandclansas thekeyagentsof socialization. Thisisindicatedin thearticleby thestatementthattheChristmas festivalsare attendedby seven camps,familyby familywithin theaivicinity.In termsof theGemeinschaften, allmembersof theBushmen communityhavea commontraditionalconcernthat is preservingtheir culturalviability by avoidingthecorrosion of their culturalpracticesby thewhiteaswellas non-white guests.Forexample,theBushmen teachesLee (1969) their ownwayof demonstratinghumilityandgratitude,which is inconsistentwith thewhite’s wayof issuinggifts.

Peopleare expectedto usetheir gooddeedsto acquiresomesocialstatusin theformalpoliticalsystemandthewhite community.However,theBushmen communitieshavetheir wayof controllingprideandenforcinghumilitywhenever circumstancesseemto providea suitableenvironmentforprideto thrive.Forexample,Lee (1969) praiseshimself by statingthathehadboughta ballof astonishingsize,five feethighandweighingabout 1,200 poundsforthecommunity.Althoughthemembersof theBushmen communityknowin their heartsthatthebullis fatandenoughtheChristmas celebrations,theyunderstandthatpraisingthebullwill giveLee (1969) prideandsomesocialstatusin thesociety.Arroganceis thechoosiestwayto containprideamong theBushmen. Thisdemonstratesthathumilityis an attributethat goesbeyond thegooddeeds.

Humilityis a virtuethat enhancesharmonyandpeacefulcoexistencein thesociety.Itis one of thekeyattributesthat helppeopleappreciatetheperspectiveandthestrengthof otherpeopleinsteadof consideringtheir successonly.Respectingandhonoringothers is theeasiestwayto attractrespectfrom otherpeople,which is thebasisof a harmoniouscommunity.Inthecaseof theBushmen community,beingarrogantanddemeaning thesuccessof others is a necessaryevilthat is practicedto ensurethatmembersof thecommunitydonot usetheir victoryto fightforpositionsof authority.Forexample,Lee (1969), statesthattheyoungmenwhomanageto killmuchmeatduring thehuntingactivitiestendto seethemselves as bigmenorchiefandothers as their servants.Thiscreatestensionas theyounghuntersfightover leadershippositionsbased on their victoryduring thehunting.Belittlingthesuccessof otherpeoplekillspridewhilecreatingroomforhumility.

Manycommunitiesin themodernsocietydonot identifyanyassociationbetween thanksgiving andhumility.However,humilityandgratitudeare inseparableattributesin somecommunities,suchas theBushmen. Lee(1969) expectedto receivepraisesby buyingweighty Christmas oxfortheBushmen communityas a wayof showinggratitudeforits hospitalityfora periodof three years,butthiswasnot thecase.In addition,Lee (1969) expectedthatthemembersof thecommunitywould appreciatehis supplyof tobaccoforfree.Issuing giftsas a wayof demonstratinggratefulness can beequatedto sellingthewesternperceptionof gratitudeto a communitythat seeshumilityas theonlyeffectivetoolto oozeclasses.In essence,humilityis theonlysurewayof enhancingequityin thesociety.

Inconclusion,thearroganceof theBushmen is a necessaryevilthat facilitatestheenforcementof humilityin thecommunity.Lee(1969) takeslongto derivethemeaningin thearroganceof theBushmenwhointendedto oozeprizeandthesenseof statusby criticizingthesuccessof others. By belittlingthevictoryof otherpeople,theBushmen manageto instillthesenseof equityin thecommunity,which facilitatesharmoniouscoexistenceamong theBushmen. Moreover,thekeyagentsof socialization (includingthefamilyandclan)facilitatethesharingof culturalpracticesandbeliefsamong themembersof thecommunity.Thishas maintainedtheculturalviability of Bushmen communitythat ischaracterizedby commontraditionalsentimentalconcernsanda homogeneouslifestyle that enforcehumilitythrough arrogance.

Assignment3:

Thewarsof privilegesandopportunitiesin theU.S

Allpeopleshould be allowedto enjoythebasicnecessitiesof lifeirrespective of their socialcharacteristics,suchas raceortheskincolor.However,theexistingsocialpatternsandpracticeshavecreatedan environmentthat favorsthewhite Americans. Unfortunately,theprivilegedwhite fail to realizethattheyare themainrecipientsof racialpreferencesandbeneficiariesof the“White privilege”(Wise 2003). Consequently, thewhite Americans havelabeledthenon-white racesas underrepresented minority,whoare themajorrecipientsof therace-based preferences.Thispaperwill focuson howsocialcontrolmechanisms,labeling of theminority,andsocialstratificationhas blindedthewhite Americans to an extentthattheycannot seetheprivilegesthattheir raceaffordsthem with referenceto thearticle“Whites swimin racialpreference”writtenby Wise (2003).Thewhite Americans havealwaysthoughtthattheaffirmativeactions,labeling of non-white as underrepresented minorities(UM) with theobjectiveof supportingthem, andsocialstratificationthat awardpointsto studentsof colorare race-based preferencesfortheminority,butin realsensetheyare theproofof thepreferencesaffordedthewhites over theyears.

Theexistenceof a largenumberof civilrightsmovementsin theUnited States isassociatedwith historicaldiscriminationof differenttypesof minoritygroups,includingthenon-white races.TheU.S. policymakersbelievethattheaffirmativeactionprogramsare effectivesocialcontrolmechanismsthat can bringtheminorityracesat parwith thewhite. Forexample,thedecisionby theUniversity of Michigan to award20 pointsto studentswhocomefrom underrepresented groupsis a socialcontrolmechanismaimedat enhancingracialparityin theuniversity(Wise 2003). However,mostof theseaffirmativeactionsare consideredby thewhite to be discriminatoryin nature.Althoughaffirmativeactionsthat favorthenon-white racesmight appearto be discriminatory,theyare onlyintendedto controltherace-based imbalancesthat theAmerican societycreatedin thepast.

Thewhite Americans seemto forgetthattheir currentsuccessesare a resultof theaffirmativeprogramsorplans thattheyhavebeenenjoyingin thepast.Forexample,thediscriminatoryaffirmativeactionsimplementedbetween 1930s and1960s allowedthewhites to ownhomes,whileexcludingthepeopleof color(Wise 2003). Currently, thewhites are activecriticizingtheaffirmativeprogramsandlabelingthenon-whites as thebeneficiariesof racialpreferences.Forexample,theformerU.S. president,George Bush, on theaffirmativepolicyadoptedby theUniversity of Michigan in an attemptto balancetheracialcompositionof thestudents(Wise 2003). Thisdemonstratesthatthewhite Americans wantto continueenjoyingthebenefitsof the“white privilege”at theexpenseof theminority.Thisis becausefailureto adoptaffirmativeactionswill continuedenyingtheminorityraces,whobeenunderrepresentedin theentirehistoryof theU.S., an opportunityto accessthebasicnecessitiessuchas highereducation.Thewhite fail to understandthattheaffirmativeactionsdesignedto helpthepeopleof coloristhesocialcontrolmechanismsthat can correctthefaultsof thepreviousaffirmativeprogramsthat favoredthewhites.

Historically,thepeopleof colorlivingin theUnited States havebeenmarginalized by thewhites wholimitedthecapacityof thenon-white to succeedin life.However,theAmerican societyhas endedup labelingthemarginalized communitiesas underrepresented minorities(UM). Thismight createa notionthatthepeopleof colormight starttakingpartof thebenefitsthat thewhites haveenjoyedin thepast.Forexample,thecommonstatementmadeby thewhites thattheywould havegotteninto their firstchoiceschoolsiftheywereblacks indicatestheir resentmentwith theaffirmativeprogramsthat seekto increaseopportunitiesforthepeopleof color(Wise 2003).Thewhites focusmoreon thepresentmeasurestakento assistthepeopleof color,which has blindedthem andreducedtheir capacityto understandthattheir economicstatusaffordsthem theopportunityto pursueeducationin thebestcollegesin theU.S.

Socialstratificationis a commonpracticethat is beingusedto propagatetheconceptof thewhite privilegeby theU.S. society.Althoughtheclassificationof racesmay not beformally documentedin thegovernmentpoliciesandlegislations,itis embossedin thememories&nbspofthepeople.Itis evidentthatthewhite earn morecomparedto thepeopleof colorworkingin thesamejobposition(Wise 2003). An attemptto integratesocialstratificationby theeducationsectorby theUniversity of Michigan wasa gimmickto convincethepeopleof colorthattheir historicaldiscriminationis beingaddressed.However,Wise (2003) identifiedthattheuniversity’saffirmativeprogramsaward20 pointsto thestudentsof colorwhileawarding58 to white students.Thisconfirmsthatsocialstratificationhas convincedthewhite thattheyare superiortootherraces.

Inconclusion,affirmativeactions,labeling of peopleof coloras underrepresented andsocialstratificationof theU.S. societyconfirmsthepreferencesthat thewhite Americans haveenjoyedover theyears.Theconceptof equityholdsthatnoethnicity, race,orskincolorshould impedepeoplefrom accessingtheir basicnecessities.However,thesocialstructureof theU.S. societyhas favoredthewhites over thepeopleof color.Unfortunately,thewhites havefailedto establishtherelationshipbetween their currentsuccessandaffirmativeprogramsthat favoredthem over otherraces.To thisend,thewhites stillbelievethatanyaffirmativeprogramsdesignedto increaseopportunitiesforthepeopleof colorare obviouslydiscriminatory.

Assignment4:

Warsof freedomof academic andacademicintegrity

Theword“freedom”is commonin everysocietythat valuescivilrightsof its members.However,there are instancesin which thefreedomsof others tendto infringetherightsof otherpeopleto enjoytheir freedomas well.Theconceptof academicfreedomhas gainedpopularityover theyears,whereeducatorsfreethattheadministratorsof their institutionsshould not micromanage their teachingstylesanddictatehowtheyshould deliverthecoursecontent (Flaherty, 2013).However,thistypeof freedomraisesconcerns,especiallywheneducatorsusetheir religious-based worldviews orpersonalexperiencesto deliversciencecourses.Thispaperwill addresstheissueof academicfreedoma focuson schoolsas socialagents,separationof statefrom religion,andargumentson sacredversus profane. Althoughacademicfreedomis importantin themodernsociety,Flaherty (2013) showsthatinstitutionsof higherlearningare socialagentsthat should not promotecertainworldviews in thenameof academicfreedomin her article“Taking a standforscience”.

Academicinstitutions(suchas publicuniversities)are facilitiesthathoststudents,educators,andnon-teaching staffwhocomefrom differentreligiousandculturalbackgrounds.To thisend,a focuson a singleworldviewcan havea significantimpactgiventhatitmight contradicttheviewsof somemembersof suchinstitutions.Flaherty (2013) statesthatfacultiesshould avoidsupportingone worldview, not onlyin sciencecourses,butalsoin socialscienceandhumanitieswherereligiousdiscussionsareaccommodatedat times.Thereasonbehind theideaof endorsinga singleworldviewis thatdifferentlearnersmight havevaryingworldviews that might differfrom whattheinstructorbelieves.Usingexamplesof theoriesusedin teachingin theinstitutionsof higherlearning,Flaherty (2013) explainedthatintelligentdesignis moreof Christian theorythan a scientificconcept.Therefore,usingintelligentdesignin a classwith studentsfrom differentreligionsis discriminatoryandoffensiveto non-Christian students.Spurringreligiousconflictsamong thestudentsreducesthecapacityof theschoolto functionas a socialagent.

Academicintegrityis not a newconceptin thefieldof academics, butithas beenevolvingandtakingnewdimensions over theyears.Initially,theconceptof academicintegrityfocusedon variousissues,suchas plagiarism,honestyin research,andrigorin publications.Currently, theconceptincludestheconsiderationof academicstandardswhich interferencereducestheintegrityof thecourse.Flaherty (2013) usestheelementof academicstandardsto opposetheuseof religiousbiased theoriesin publicinstitutionsof higherlearning.Forexample,intelligentdesignwould interferewith academicintegrityin thatitwould reducethecapacityof instructorto representtheconsensusarrivedat by sciencescholarsin an accurateway.Thereforeaninstructorusingreligion-based conceptto deliverscientificcontents will failto achievepre-determined courseobjectives.Itis, therefore,justifiableto accuseinstructorforteachingreligioninsteadof science.

Theintelligentdesignmodelis one of theconceptsthat havecauseda seriousclashbetween evolutionandfaith.Teachingtheconceptof intelligentdesignin a scienceclassis oftenperceivedto be a formof religiousindoctrination.Religiousindoctrinationin an institutionof learningviolatestheconstitutionalprincipleof separationof religionandstate(Flaherty, 2013). Intelligentdesignholdsthatthecomplexity of thelivingorganismsis a confirmationthattheymust havebeencreatedby somesupernaturalpower.Thisis inconsistentwith mostof thescientificconceptsthat explaintheoriginof organismsandhowtheyhavedevelopedwith time.Studentsin publicinstitutionsshould be taughtqualityscienceandbe protectedfrom anyformof religiousindoctrinationin order to enhance compliance with the principle of separation ofstate from religion.

Althoughtheissueof usingtheintelligencedesignmodelmay appearto be a warbetweenthesacredandprofane, theeducationsystemprovidesavenuesthrough which worldviews can bediscussed.Forexample,socialsciencesallowtheeducatorsto discussdifferentworldviews with thestudents(Flaherty, 2013). However,theseworldviews should be consideredin an unbiasedmanner.Objectivities areachievedwhendiscussingworldviews by presentingtheprinciplesandassumptionsof theworldviews to studentswithout recommendinganyone of them. Thefactthattheeducationsystemhas openeda channelfordiscussionof worldviews in objectwaysprovesthatthosewhoopposetheuseof intelligentdesignare not fightingwith thesacredconcept,buttryingto protecttheintegrityof thesciencecourses.

Inconclusion,academicfreedomis criticalin thecontemporarysociety,buteducatorsshould not sacrificeacademicintegrityto pursuetheir preferredworldviews since schoolsare socialagents.Publicinstitutionsof learningadmitstudents,educators,andworkersfrom differenta religiousandculturalbackground,which impliesthattheworldviews should onlybestudiedin an objectivewayto avoidoffendingpeoplewhoholddifferentviews.In addition,usingone worldview in a scienceclassinterfereswith theintegrityof a sciencecourse.Italsointerfereswith theconstitutionalprincipleof separationof statefrom anyreligiousgroup.In essence,theschoolsystemdoesnot rejecttheuseof worldviews, butitadvocatesforan objectiveapproachin teachingworldviews. Objectivity ensuresthatthecapacityof publicinstitutionsto functionas socialagentsis not interrupted.

Assignment5:

Climatechangeandits effects

Climatechangeis currently a troubledissuegiventhatitthreatensthelivesof thepeople.Climatechangeis closelyassociatedwith globalization, since theincreasesin theinternationalintegrationbooststrade,which in turnincreasesemissionsof greenhousegasesas a resultof an increasein theconsumptionof fossilfuels(DeWeerdt, 2007).Previousstudiessuggestthatthedeveloping nationsarethehardest hitinspiteofthefactthattheyare lessresponsibleforclimatechanges.However,DeWeerdt (2007) reportedin thearticle“Climate Change, Coming Home” that,eventhedevelopedworldhas a burdento bear.Thispaperwill addressthenegativeeffectsof climatechangewith a focuson theeffectson thedevelopedworldthat has beenassumedto be on thesaferside.Althoughithas beenpreviouslyassumedthatclimatechangeaffecteddevelopingcountrieswith limitedcapacityto adaptto changes,DeWeerdt (2007) indicatedthattheadverseaffectsof climatechangesparesnone.

Humanecologyfocuseson thestudyof therelationshipbetween peopleandtheir environment.Althoughtheincreasein humanpopulationhas contributedto environmental pollution,recentstudiesindicatethatthe affluencegrowth,especiallyin therapidlygrowingnationsbearsthegreatestresponsibilityforclimatechange(DeWeerdt, 2007). Theincreasein temperaturesas a resultof climatechangeis one of thenotableeffectsthat affectallpeopleirrespective of their geographicallocations.Forexample,thewesterncountriesexperiencesummerswith extremelyhighertemperaturesthan normal(DeWeerdt, 2007). Thehotsummersare likelyto affectthedevelopedcountriesthat are closerto theNorth Pole than thedeveloping countries.Forexample,theextremeheatexperiencedin the2003 summerresultedin about 20,000 deathsFrance andseveralotherpeoplediedin somepartsof Europe (DeWeerdt, 2007). Casesof deathas a resultof extremetemperaturesarerarelyreportedin thedeveloping countries.

Thehightemperaturesincreasetheriskof occurrenceof moredisastrousnaturalcatastrophes,suchas hurricanes.Hurricanesoccurbecausethehotairhas an increasedcapacityto carrya highercontent of moisture,which increasetheriskof theoccurrenceof hydrological cyclesthat are responsibleforhurricanes(DeWeerdt, 2007). Althoughstudieson climatechangehavebeenbasedon global stratification,which showsthattheunderdevelopedcountriesare moreaffected,hurricanescan affectanypartof theworld.Katrina is one of thedeadliesthurricanesthat hittheU.S. (one of thedevelopedcountries),implyingthattheeffectsof changesin climateare not selective.In addition,theincreasein temperaturelevels will melttheiceandraisethelevelof sea water.Thiswill affectallcountriesborderingtheinternationalwaterbodieswithout affectingthedeveloping worldselectively.

Inmostcases,humanecologyfocuseson theeffectof changesin climateon thespreadofdiseases(including dengueand malaria)in underdevelopednations.However,littlefocusis madeon thepossibilityof thesediseasesreachingthedevelopedworldas a resultof theemergenceof climatethat is favorableforinsectsthat spreadthesediseases.Forexample,theincreasein temperaturesandretreatingof theglacierhas provideda suitableenvironmentformosquitoes that spreaddengue andmalariato reachotherareassuchas Latin America andpartsof Asia (DeWeerdt, 2007).In addition,tickthat spreads Lyme diseasehas alsoreachedthehighlatitudeareasof theCzech Republic andSweden. Althoughdiseases,suchas malariaanddengue, are likelyto increaseat thehighestratein thecountriesthat are alreadyaffected,there is a highlikelihoodthattheywill reachotherplaces(includingthedevelopedworld)that havenot experiencedthem before.

Thosewhosupporttheideathatthedevelopedworldwill be lessaffectedclimatechangestatethatthesecountrieshavean increasedcapacityto adaptto thesechanges.However,itis morecostlyto changethefuel-intensiveindustrialsystemsthat are currently beingusedin thedevelopedcountriesthan to developfuelefficientonesin emergingeconomies.Thismeansthatdevelopedcountrieswill haveto financeemergingeconomiesto developfieldefficientsystemin orderto controltherateof greenhousegasemission(DeWeerdt, 2007). By financingthedeveloping countriesto helpthem developenvironmentally friendlyindustrialsystems,thedevelopedworldwill haveassumedtheburdenof climatechange.In addition,thecoping strategiesinvolvetheestablishmentof effectivehealthcaresystemsto dealwithanincreasein therateof diseaseinfection,which isan extraburdenof a healthcaresystemthat isalreadyoverloaded.

Inconclusion,thearticle,“Climate Change, Coming Home” clearsthemisconceptionthattheadverseeffectsof changesin climateaffectthedeveloping countriessince thedevelopedworldhas thecapacityto adaptto thesechanges.Changesin climateaffectthedevelopedworldin multipleways,suchas theoccurrenceof extremelyhotsummersthat killthousands. In addition,changesin climateare responsibleforcyclones(suchas hurricanes)that causedeathsin differentregionswithout selectingregionson thebasisof their levels of economicdevelopment.Moreover,diseases(suchas malaria)that havehistorically beenlabeledas thedeveloping countries’illnessesare likelyto reachthedevelopedworldfollowingtheincreasein levels of temperatures.Thefactthatchangesin climateaffectallpeoplecallsforenvironmental justice,whereallpeople(includingthosein thedevelopedandthedeveloping nations)to contributetowards thereductionof therateof emissionof greenhousegases.

References

DeWeerdt,S. (2007). ClimateChange, Coming Home: Global Warming`s Effects on Populations.WorldWatchInstitute.Retrieved March 28, 2015, from http://www.worldwatch.org/node/5019

Flaherty,C. (2013, August 1). Taking a stand for science. InsideHigher ED.Retrieved March 28, 2015, fromhttps://www.insidehighered.com/news/2013/08/01/scientists-applaud-ball-state-presidents-position-intelligent-design

Lee,R. (1969). EatingChristmas in the Kalahari.New York, NY: The American Museum of National History.

Wise,T. (2003, February 19). Whites swim in racial preference. Alternet.Retrieved March 28, 2015, fromhttp://www.alternet.org/story/15223/whites_swim_in_racial_preference