THE TATLER 1
In the eighteenth century, there were certain elements that dominatedthe British culture. One of this was the development of the pubicculture of rational discussion. This occurred especially amongst thebourgeoisie (Blanchard, 2013). This led to the rise of the Englishcoffeehouses, which were public social places where the people wouldcome together for talks and socialization while they took coffee.Public spheres provide a platform for individuals who came togetherto discuss specific topics of discussion, and different coffeehouses’members would have various groups discussing different ideas. Inorder to control the activity, there were rules that were set togovern the conduct of the debaters. With this attempt of making thisactivity a formal one, there rose a number of venue prints tocirculate the topics (Squibbs, 2008). One of these publications was, owned by Richard Steele. These publishers workedto reform the manners and moral so of the English society. This paperdemonstrates that three numbered issues of supportedcritical ideas about the developing culture of rational discussion inthe eighteenth-Century Britain.
Matterof the tatling women
While there has been a number of arguments about the role of genderin the eighteenth century Britain public spheres, the role of thewomen in the discussions has been focus of discussion. Not manyhistorians would agree about the role of the women in the Britishcoffeehouses of the eighteenth century. According to reports from anumber of publications of , women were forbidden inparticipating in some coffeehouse activities. However, there are someworks of literature which purport that everybody was allowed to takepart in the discussions, regardless of their age, gender or merit.However, what most historians agree upon is that some conversationswere male centered, especially those that touched on issues such aspolitics and business. The public spheres have been depicted by Bloom& Bloom (2013) as gentlemanly spheres. Additionally, the publicspheres were viewed as places which were supposed to be avoided bywomen who wished to protect and preserve their respectability in thesociety. This led to emergence of protests from women who vocalizedtheir concern about the nature of the public spheres.
Thereis the issue of rhetorical precedent, which was set by the publisherof , Richard Steele. Rhetorical precedent supportedthe ideas of the public spheres, which were pro-masculine. It wasthrough their support for this basic idea of the pubic spheres thatthere was a counter-publication that was produced by women, known asthe Female Tatler. However, according to Wender &Occhiogrosso (2011), in order to survive in the male-dominatedeighteenth century Britain society and marketplace, thiscounter-production complemented the strategy that was used by themore respected publications, and Spectator. Themost used strategy was the utilization of the same rhetoricalprocesses. As such, the publications emphasized on the gender-basednotion of femininity and masculinity, this aiding in furtherpolarization of the public spheres.
Accordingto Osell (2005), rhetorical femininity is a function of the authorfunction. This was achieved by characterizing the text to be by thefemales and for the females. This appeared in the eighteenth centurypublic sphere publications as a strategy by the publishers tosymbolically represent both generic affiliation relationship betweenvarious publications and the public sphere. , in theprocess, through rhetoric, explored the manner in which gender and byextension sex helped the public spheres to give meaning to thesociety on issues such as family relations, public life, politics andbusiness. From a publication of in 1709 (Issue 1),Steele demonstrated that rhetoric was not exclusively the province ofneither the male not the female writers (Aitken, nd). Additionally,the publication showed that rhetoric, in the gender perspective, wasnot purely symbolic. Osell (2005) agrees with this, stating thatrhetoric and gender were generally related, and neither sex wouldclaim to represent their own as a class rather a generalization ofideas.
Steele,from time to time, found himself altering some of the content in anattempt not to go astray of the critical idea of the public spheresin the time, femininity (Bloom & Bloom, 2013). For instance, inthe tenth issue, he had to substitute a female eidolon on subjectsthat related to women. In this publication, Bickerstaff’s sister,Jenny Distaff, is used as a substitution for one of the characters.The reason Steele did this was to use the character to describe asystem that was relatively symmetrical with respect to gender (Osell,2005). Through the eighteenth century, the issue of the role of womenand their participation in family inheritance formed topics in thepublic spheres. It has been observed by historians that women lostground for protecting what they had, and it was through this thatthere was a shift from kinship to conjugal family ideals (Blanchard,2013). In the public sphere debates, there was a constant conflictbetween the men and their women’s inclination to bring out therealization of a series of paradoxes and possibilities within thefamily metaphor (Osell, 2015). From the tenth issue of ,it is shown that the women’s actions protected from being publishedin a negative light, which was an issue that generated debate in thepublic spheres.
Publicizingthe private sphere
One of the major reasons for publishing was torevolutionize the spread of ideas through formal print. This led tothe rise of periodicity and opinion in the public sphere in theeighteenth century British society. As pointed out by historians,regular publication of personal essays helped the public to consumethe news, and additionally, to reflect on the content of thearguments as presented by the participants. In the first essayperiodical that appeared in 1709 (issue 1), Richard Steele createdthe formula that formed a self-contained model, which effectivelycreated an entirely new system of interconnectivity (Aitken, n.d). Itwas the idea of the public spheres that the discussions spreadfurther so as to attract new debaters in the forthcoming debates.
This model maintained the essence of the emerging public sphere,which came to be perceived as arenas where people, regardless oftheir social status and gender, would engage in the debates andparticipate in contributing to a number of subjects. According toOsell (2005). The essay periodical s played a role in forming thefabric of the public sphere. , as a publication,presented the genre. It has been agreed by historians and literatureexperts that through the creation if periodical such as that constructive reading material emerged in the public sphere.
Accordingto Osell (2005), combined periodicity and opinion,evidenced in issue 6 of the publication. The publications made therather private debates in the coffeehouses a public engagement, asthey motivated the public to engage by reflecting about the debates,and recognizing the public importance of the private activity. It wasthrough ’s model of internalizing the clock oftime and daily journal keeping that the rise of time as a crucialfactor in public and private engagements was realized (Blanchard,2013). For instance, there are a number of copy-cats that came up toimitate . All these publications proposed regularpublications, which took the element if timing trends in thediscussions into consideration. Generally, helpedto revolutionize the critical idea of publicly promoting rationaldiscussion as a developing public culture.
The publications of by Steele were used topropagate the ideas that were discussed in the public spheres in theeighteenth century. Some of the critical ideas about the developingpublic culture of rational discussion in the eighteenth centuryBritain were rhetoric, gender and publication of private discussions,which were considered to be rumours. One of the fundamental ideasabout the public sphere was that the participants would not be barredon basis of their gender or social status. However, women’sparticipation in the debates, especially on certain issues which wereconsidered to be men-business, was somehow limited. From the samplesof issues of which were published in the eighteenthcentury, these critical ideas were supported by the publishers. Forinstance, there rhetoric precedent in the content, and the publisherrevolutionized the idea of periodical publishing in the modernsociety as means of publicizing debates.
Aitken, G.A. (n.d). . Retrieved on 11 April 2015from: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/13645/13645-h/13645-h.htm
Blanchard, R. (2013). Tractsand pamphlets by Richard Steele.Routledge.
Bloom, E. A., & Bloom, L. D.(Eds.). (2013). JosephAddison and Richard Steele: The Critical Heritage.Routledge.
Osell, T. (2005). Tatling women in the public sphere: Rhetoricalfemininity and the English essay periodical. American Society forEighteenth-Century Studies. 38(2): 283-300.
Squibbs, R. (2008). Civic Humorismand the Eighteenth-Century Periodical Essay. ELH, 75(2),389-413.
Wender, P., & Occhiogrosso, M.(2011). Sir Richard Steele, 1672–1729: Early Traumatic Loss andAdult Sequelae. Perspectives, 168(4).