Tests and Assesses

Testsand Assesses



Withvaried definition’s, performance appraisal (PA) is one of the toolsused in the organization to assesses job performance for employees(Dessler, 2011 Cohenet al., 2013).Performance appraisal reviews the employee’s performance for agiven duration of time. The ultimate objective of PA is aimed atmaintaining a positive employee performance with respect to theorganization’s rewards system, rules, and regulations. The resultsof PA are measured using appraisal methods such as category scalingand comparative methods. Category scaling displays the staff’sperformance on group levels such as from highest and lowest.Comparative appraisal entails the ranking and comparison of employeesparticular work duties as per the organization’s work plans.

BehavioralObservation Scales

BehavioralObservation Scale (BOS) is a frequency rating of workers on afive-point scale system or checklist to critical functions performedby the employees skills (Døskeland and Hvide, 2011). The methodfocuses on measuring the employee’s teamwork behaviors. Ifemployees behavior differ, a choice of choice of scale system isemployed to assess each employee in the organization.The system is useful for diagnosing teamwork challenges notablyduring training.

Thecommon known BOS used is the dichotomous scale (checked andunchecked) rating and Likert-type rating. For the instance, managermay use a five rating scale to appraise the sales manager. Does thesalesperson know the price of competitive products in the market? Thescale is rated with respect to five-point scale based on thefollowing attributes never, seldom, sometimes, and always. Thefrequency in percentile, ranges from is 0-19%, 20-39%, 40-59%,60-79%, and 80-100%. The diagram below represents its implementation.













Bigfive theory of personality

Thebig five theory of personality advocates for five broad aspects whichexamines human personality and individual differences within sameOrganization (Dessler, 2011). The theory is frequently used by humanresource professionals to help employees since its dimensions displaytraits that make up an individual’s personality.

Thebig five theory of personality is useful for assessing non-managerialstaff members focusing on who positions others with respect to one’spersonality lifestyle. Given the effectiveness of this approach, thesystem is widely used for understanding and measuring and explainingindividual personality (Swami, et al., 2011). One of the tests andassessments methods developed in big five is the Rapid PersonalityQuestionnaire, which was launched in United Kingdom. The most commonresearch being done on this theory focuses on individuals traits intheir occupational field of employment. The basic elements of bigfive theory of personality is:


Employeesand managers who learn new things and enjoy new experiences scoregate marks in openness. It is achievable by being insightful,imaginative, and an idealistic wider variety of interests.


Consciousnessfocus on people, who have the higher ability and prompt theindividual well organized, be methodic and thorough.


Extraversionis involved when an individual or an employee or manager gets energywhen interacting with others through talkative and being assertive.The behavioral measurement is achievable by individual competitive,enthusiastic, and persuasive skills among others (McCann, 2011).


Oneis regarded as Agreeable when the individual trait displayedfriendly, cooperative, and compassionate within Organization. Thetrait includes being kind, affectionate and sympathetic.


Itis also known as emotional stability. The trait focuses onindividuals emotions. If the scale measures an individual with higherNeuroticism then the individual experience negative emotionsinstability. The traits are being moody and tense (McCann, 2011).


Meta-analysisrefers to the analysis of the statistical analysis of a densecollection of analysis results from a specific study for compellingthe results collected (McCann, 2011). The system is mostly used inmedical and psychological departments within an institution for thepurpose of studies. Meta-analysis assists in curbing difficulties anindividual experiences when attempting to develop an effectiveresearch. The research system offers accurate results through, thanksto its transparency. For an individual to fully use meta-analysisprocedures, it is a requirement to have a well-established andexecuted systematic review. This will eliminate the use of inaccuratequantitative estimates. To fully achieve a quality meta-analysis, thequality of systematic review should reflect the checklist of thequality of reporting of Meta-analysis (QUORUM) which is highlyrecommended (Mekasha, and Tarp, 2011).

Inorder to conduct a meta-analysis, a well-structured database isrequired. Searching information’s from useful sources that meet theresearch criteria such as journals are imperative. The key terms usedto search database is developed with care to eliminate errors andmisinformation representations.

Carroll’sThree-Stratum theory

Proposedby John Carroll, the three stratum theory, theory focuses on factor–analytic study through correlating the individuals differencevariables using psychological tests, institutions markings, andcompetence ratings (Cohenet al.,2013). The theory has a three-layered model, where individuallayer accounts for the correlation with previous layers. Carols’three-stratum model advocates that there are observable differenceswithin the individuals performing the task assigned and reflectspsychological factors explaining differences in ability (Cohenet al.,2013).

Inthe theory, Carroll proposes a taxonomy dimension. This distinguishesbetween the level factor and speed factors. The individuals are ratedif they have acquired the skill to perform the assigned duty usingthe level factor. The speed factor is focused on relative speed towhich an individual can complete assigned task.


Cohen,R. J., Swerdlik, M. E., &amp Sturman, E. D. (2013). PsychologicalTesting and Assessment:

AnIntroduction to Tests and Measurement[8th Ed.]. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Dessler,G. (2011). HumanResource Management.New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc.

Døskeland,T., and H. Hvide. (2011). “DoIndividual Investors Have Asymmetric

InformationBased on Work Experience?Journal of Finance, 66:1011-1041.

McCann,S. J. H. (2011). Emotional health and the Big Five personalityfactors at the American

Statelevel. Journal of Happiness Studies, 12,547–560.

Mekasha,T.J. and Tarp, F. (2011) Aid and growth: what meta-analysis reveals.Wider Working

PaperWP/22, World Institute for Development Economics Research(UNU-WIDER), Helsinki

Swami,V., Taylor, R. &amp Carvalho, C. (2011). Body dissatisfactionassessed by the Photographic

FigureRating Scale is associated with socio-cultural, personality, andmedia influences. ScandinavianJournal of Psychology,52, 57–63