Technological Effects on Artistry and Militarism

TechnologicalEffects on Artistry and Militarism

Technologicaladvancementshadgreatimportanceto theancientsocietiesof India, Europe, Africa, Asia, andChina as wellas in art.Theabovechangesboostedthemilitaryformationsandartistryof thesesocietiesto evengreaterheights.Asa result,thispaperwill striveto tracethetechnological transformationsin thelivesof thesegroupsto ascertainits impacton their variousmilitaryconquests.In addition,wewill lookat thechangesin howartistsviewtheuniverseandhowtechnology has alsoaidedtheir craft.I will analyzevarioussourcesfrom differentliteraturesto comeup with a comprehensiveanalysisof theabovethesis.

Effectsof innovations on Militarism

Accordingto theliteratureprovidedby thedifferentarchives, there werenumeroustechnological advancementsthat ledto thedevelopmentof extensiveandpowerfuldynastiesandempiresaround theworld.In China, by 600, theedificeof theGrand Canal during theSui dynastymarkedthebeginningandeventualriseof southernChina to thenorthwhich hadbeenthereigningpowerformanydecades. Until thistime,theregalcenterof importancewasvividlyin thenorth.Thesouthernwasthenperceivedonlyas a frontierregion.Thenorthwasusuallythepredominantforce,politically, socially,andintellectually. Thenewdevelopmentsmadethenorthrely almostentirelyon theSouth forcrops(Shaffer10).

Meanwhile,othertechnologies that significantly impactedon ancientsocietiesis thedevelopmentcompass,printingtechnology, gunpowder,andagriculturalinnovationsthat enhancedcropvarieties.All thesechangesarecreditedto theprocessof southernizationthat tookplacefrom theearliercenturiesto theseventeenth centurywhentheindustrialrevolutiontooktotalprecedence.Theinventionof thenewarithmetical improvements,coupledwith thedevelopmentof thecompassby theChinese, ledto thediscoveryof newsea routes.Thisgreatlyenhancedconquestwarsandopenedup theworldto newtradinglocations.Varioussocietiesthriveddueto thisimportantinnovation.ThePortuguese, Arab, Chinese empireexpandedallover theworlddue to their superiorsea navigationadvancementsthat weregreatlyaidedby thecompass.Forinstance,theArabs thriveddueto theestablishmentof newtradingroutesthat sawthem reachAfrica andotherremotepartsof Asia. On theway,theyconqueredseveralcommunitiesandimposedtheir ideologiesandwayof lifeon them ((Shaffer10-13).

Inthe9th century,thediscoveryof thegunpowderby theChinese` Daoist alchemists wasimportantin conquestventures.TheChinese andtheIndians extensivelyusedthisnewdevelopmentto subverttheir rivals.Theinnovationcameaboutdue to thecuriosityof an Indian monk.Whilein China, heidentifiedearththat haddepositsof saltpaper.Heexhibitedthepurpleflamethat isobservedfrom its exposureto fire.In the10th century,thisessentialsubstancewasusedin themanufactureof flamingarrows,bombs,androcketshurledby catapults.Later,itledtothe introductiontheof themightybombard orcanonweapons.Anothervitaldiscoverywasthatof theprintingtechnology that wasbeingusedto sendmoredetailedinformation.Thisdevelopmentisdedicatedto theChinese. Agriculturaldevelopmentsby theArabs sawtheintroductionof newcropsinto thepractice.Thiscatapulted theArab dynastiesto evenmorefameandinfluence.Theyconqueredandcontrolledvastlandfrom Africa to Asia, as a result.

Intheeighteenth century,theBritish industrialrevolutionusheredin thegrowinginfluenceof thewesternEuropean nations.The“southernization”wavewasimmediatelyhaltedby westernization as newideologieswereushered.Theperiodsawtheintroductionof somethemostsophisticatedwaysin trading,agriculture,warfare,andgovernance. During thistime,theEastern European nationswereexaltedto a pointof global supremacy.Thisprocesswasevidentin theBritish conquestof Bengal andotherIndian vitalregions.Thenineteenth centurysawfurtherdevelopmentof &quottoolsof empire&quotavailed by theAgrarian andIndustrial Revolutions. Apparently,theseinnovationstotallytiltedthebalanceof powerfrom theAsian to northernEuropean powers(Shaffer20).

Artistsandtheir View of theUniverse

Ashumans,our opinionof spaceis dictatedby perspective,in thelogicof a condensationof theestimatedsizeof objectswith expanse.Accordingto observationsmade,one of themajorfunctionsof thebrainis to decipherthissizedecreaseas spacein thethirdelementoregotisticdistance.Literatureexplainsthat,iftheeyehappenedto be a pinhole camera, theprotrusionof theglobeonto therear planewould be an ideallinearviewpoint.However,howtheminddecipherstheinformationin innateperspectiveinto a preciseapprovalof thespatial planhas yetto be determined(Prendeville364-388).

Sincetimeimmemorial,spacedemonstrationthrough perceptionhas stimulatedconsiderabletheoreticaleffort.Perceptionscenepaintingwasa launchpadof arithmetic geometry evenin theeraof Plato andmaintainedits importancethrough theeraof theHellenists. However,itdidnot resurface as an artprocedureuntil the1300s. Nevertheless,totalmasteryof criticalstandpointtookanothersix hundred yearsto advance.Preciseone-sidedpointof thinkingdominatedthe1400s, beinginitiallyusedby Masolino da Panicale andhis student,Masaccio. In 1505, two-point perspectivewasfirstdemonstratedby Viator, althoughits constructionremainedelusivein theentireRenaissance perioduntil 1650, whenitobserveda wideusagein 1700 and1800s. Multi-point andthree-point constructionfiguresfornumericaldissertationwereattemptedin futilityby Leonardo da Vinci andPiero Della Francesca in thelate1400s (Prendeville364-388).None of theseeffortsemergedin artworks until a rareinstanceby Tiepolo in 1744. Thethree-point creationappearsto havebeenfirstinitiatedinto artistryworksof thetwentieth centuryby Georgia O`Keeffe in her New York sequencein the1920s. Linear perspectiveis a conceptthat wentundefinedforover600 years.Amusingly, mostof thetheoreticalprogressesin theperspectiveconstructionwereachievedby artistsinsteadof geometers (Prendeville364-388).

WorksCited

Bentley,Jerry H. &quotIN WORLD HISTORY.&quot EDUCATIONABOUT ASIA4.1 (1999).

Prendeville,Brendan. &quotMerleau‐Ponty,Realism and Painting: psychophysical space and the space ofexchange.&quot ArtHistory22.3 (1999): 364-388.

Shaffer,Lynda. &quotSouthernization.&quot Journalof World History(1994): 1-21.

Wölfflin,Heinrich. Principlesof art history.Courier Corporation, 2012.