Technical Writing


  1. The Relationship between scientific and

ThomasKuhn was a widely revered American historian, philosopher of science,and a physicist. His book, &quotthe Structure of ScientificRevolutions&quot was powerful in the popular as well as the academiccircles. It brought forth the term &quotparadigm shift” which isnow an idiom in the English language. According to Kuhn, the termparadigm may refer to the set of observations that describe ascientific discipline at any given time. In the book, he explainsthe scientific meaning of paradigm as widely known scientificaccomplishments that, for a period, solve model problems for asociety of practitioners. However, Kuhn did not regard the notion ofparadigm as fitting for the social sciences. He demonstrates that hecame up with the idea of paradigm to differentiate the natural fromthe social sciences. He firmly believes that paradigms do not existin the social science context. Kuhn came up with the following modelto solve problems:

  • What is under scrutiny or observation?

  • The type of questions to be probed for solutions in relativity to the subject

  • The structure of the of the intended questions

  • Establishing the predictions made by the key theory in the discipline

  • How the outcome of scientific investigations should be deciphered

  • How a trial is to be performed, as well as what equipment is presented for the experiment

Ontheir part, Penrose and Katz think that science and the society areintertwined. They bring forth the importance of the community withinwhich someone interacts, bonds, and works. For instance, theyhighlight the case of two doctors who depended on the efforts ofother medical practitioners to come up with a particular strain ofbacterium. They reckon that, if not for the help extended to them bythe community members, it could have been much difficult to achievethat feat. They state that:

Likeany society, scientific communities operate by a system of beliefsand assumptions that govern the perception and understanding ofphenomena, the methods used in the research that is conducted, andthe kinds of assertions that can be made and treatments developed.

Aswas in our technical writing class discussions, Penrose and Katzagree that the in scientific research or any other study that istechnical in nature requires validation by the community ofprofessionals in that field.

Bothconcepts of science share the same objectives as those in foundtechnical writing. Kuhn’s model of searching and finding solutionsto problems follows the same procedure as those of the elements of arhetorical situation discussed in class earlier. The philosophicalunderpinning of technical writing is that of finding solutions toproblems. Just like science, technical writing requires:






Goodpractices of excellent technical writing require one to understandthat, all the steps indicated above are interrelated and frequentlyoverlap. For instance, a person’s readers’ need and his/herintentions, determined in the first step, will have a general effecton the choices made in ensuing steps.

  1. Genre

Accordingto Swales’ definition attained from the Webster’sDictionary,the term genre is described as a unique category or type of literarywork. In today`s world, the word genre is just used to describe adistinctive group of dialog of any kind, written or spoken, with orlacking literary objectives. Swales affirms that till now this termcontinues to be a fuzzy concept, a loose term of art in some way. Ina worse scenario, particularly in the United States, genre hasrecently become linked with a scandalous formulae way of creating (orhelp in the creation of) particular texts – a type of speaking orwriting that uses numerals. As a result, this link portrays genre asshear mechanism, and for that reason, is detrimental to theenlightening and the enlightened conception that language is at theend of the day, a matter of preference. Consequently, it becomesdifficult to ascertain whether genre as a structuring methodology forlanguage learning is doomed to enable the unthinking relevance offormulas or whether it is an oversimplification designed byeducational convenience. Swales offers praise for Miller`s brilliantwork that strengthens the thought of genre as a means of socialaction, one located in a broader socio-rhetorical context and actingnot only as a method for accomplishing communicative objectives butilluminating what those objectives might be as well.

Inthe book, Swales conducts a survey that affirms the stance that, itvery possible to utilize genres for instructive functions withoutreducing courses to narrow prescriptivism or formalism and devoid ofdenying learners the prospect to reflect upon metaphorical orlinguistic preferences. In characterization of genre according toJohn Swales, there are several points to be followed:

  1. Genre as a set of communicative events

Swalesis of the assumption that a communicative occurrence is one whichlanguage and paralanguage play both a vital and an obligatory role.He notes that, at times it proves difficult to acknowledge verbalcommunication as an integral part of the activity. For instance,activities in which talking is supplementary, as in engaging inbodily exercises, driving, or performing domestic chores, will not becounted as communicative occurrences nor will actions that utilizethe ears and eyes in non-verbal ways like listening to music orstaring at pictures.

Inaddition, communicative incidents of a particular class will differin their occurrence from the excessively familiar to the relativelyrare. Therefore, it is noble to state that, classes with fewinstances require prominence within the germane culture to subsist asa genre type. Lastly, as stated earlier, a communicative happening ishere envisaged as consisting not only of the conversation itself andits contributors, but also the responsibility of that dialogue andthe surrounding of its production and treatment, notwithstanding itspast and cultural linkage.

  1. The primary criteria feature that turns an assortment of communiqué into a genre is based on having similar communicative intentions.

Puttingthe primary determinant of genre-applicability on same functioninstead of similarities of form or some other criteria is to take aposition that grants with that stated by Martin (1985) or Miller(1984). The decision is centered on the hypothesis that, except forcertain unusual and unique instances, genres are communicativemediums for the accomplishment of intentions. Therefore, it will becorrect to state that, a purpose is less visible and provable featurethan, for example, form. For that reason, it serves less well as theprimary criterion. To determine the fundamentalism of purpose, it mayrequire the analyst to undertake a considerable amount of open-mindedand independent assessment hence offering defense against asimplistic classification relying on stylistic features and acquiredbeliefs, like characterizing research materials as uncomplicatedreports of experiments. On the other hand, some instances providefor an easy identifying purpose. For example, recipes would seem tobe simple instructional writings meant to ensure that a series ofsteps are undertaken as per the prescriptions offered, the requiredcookery outcome will be realized.

  1. The logic behind a genre reveals constraints on acceptable contributions based on their content, forms, and position.

Thischaracteristic observes that, members of a discourse community makeuse of genres to become communicatively conscious of the objectivesof their communities. The shared sets of functions of a genus arehence identified – at some point of consciousness – by therecognized members of the original discourse community. Swalesreckons that, identification of purposes allows for logic, while thelogic leads to constricting principles. For instance, Swales gives anexample of the studies done in the medical fields as representingclearly the relationship between genre and discourse communities. Itappears that many medics trained in the United Kingdom commonly usethe SOAP system to arrange their consultations.

  1. A discourse community’s taxonomy for genre is a vital source of insight

Asobserved, awareness of the principles of a genre (and heir logic) ismore likely to be greater in those who professionally or routinelyfunction within that genre as compared to those who become engrossedin it on occasional instances. Consequently, active discoursecommunity associates tend to have the best genre-specific knowledgeas often observed in exchanges between members of a profession andtheir customers or clients.

Inour class discussions, we stated that a discourse community is onewhich the members have purposes or goals and utilize communication torealize these goals. Some instances of a discourse community might bethose who contribute or read certain professionals journals, membersof an email database for a celebrity`s fans.We learned that eachdiscourse community has unique non-documented rules pertaining to thechoice of words in the discourse and how it is done. For example, ajournal will automatically reject an article with the statement that“Discourse is the best concept.&quot Another instance involves thefans of a popular figure not accepting negative comments onobservations made about their celebrity. Therefore, it is right tostate that, most members shift within and between diverse discoursecommunities on a daily basis.

Onecharacteristic of a discourse community is that it is intangible,and, therefore, it is simpler to visualize a discourse communitybased on the forum in which it functions. The assumption journal andthe fans represent an example of a discussion of the action of thediscourse community.

Adiscourse community has the following characteristics:

  1. Has widely agreed set of similar public objectives

  2. Have means of intercommunication between its members

  3. Utilizes its participatory methods mainly to give feedback and information

  4. Uses and seizes multiple genres in the talkative advancement of its aims

  5. In addition to owning genres, it has gained some precise terminologies

  6. Has an entrance level of members with a fitting level of pertinent content and discoursal proficiency.

  1. Reading and Writing Research Reports

KenHyland offered one of the best-researched articles on the way towrite academic citations and how they add to the construction ofdisciplinary facts. In the study, vivid disciplinary distinctionsare established in both the scope to which writers submit to theeffort of others and in the way they correspond to the observedinformation. It is clear that, writers in the social sciences andhumanities make use of largely more citations than engineers andscientists. It is arguably a fact that these disparities in citationmethods are in relation to the notion that scholars enthusiasticallytake part in knowledge edifice as members of expertise groups andthat their discussion choices are inclined to entrench acutely in thesocial and epistemological conventions of their disciplines.

Inthe study, Hyland notes that creation of academic facts is a socialprocess, with the status of acceptance only bestowed on a claim afternegotiation with editors, journal readers, and expert reviewers, theconcluding ratification allowed, naturally, with the reference to theassertion by others. This may lead to the evaporation of allacknowledgments as they are integrated into the texts of thediscipline. The method of ratification openly states that writersmust observe the response of their expected readership to their workfor it is eventually an individual`s peers who give the validationthat changes viewpoint into knowledge. Also, writers of articles andother formal and informative resources are obligated to use otherpeople`s ideologies and reason to further their concepts about atopic. This helps in adding more value to a research writingproviding more facts in the process. Articles need to be in-depth andshould take into account all the literature that is related to it soas to offer a consistent account of events.

Inwriting, coherence is related to the notion of unity. If writing iscoherent, each element is linked rationally. Coherent writing appearsto have a natural and seamless flow in both sense and style. Eachidea has a relationship that aids in the construction of an overallcontrolling conclusion, theme or idea in the literature. On theother hand, unity might be defined as the style of following oneprimary idea throughout a paper. Writing is said to be in unity wheneach sentence and word bears an importance and makes a reader have agreater comprehension of the general theme of the text.

  1. Mechanical Connection of Phrases

Inwriting, paragraph unity is the most vital attribute of awell-crafted item. It describes that all paragraph sentences shouldpass a single idea or one key subject. This means that, the topicsentence, the verification sentence, and the conclusion should focuson no more than one idea. In addition, paragraphs are required to becoherent. The rule of coherence requires that the thoughts orsentences outlaid in a paragraph should have a seamless flow from thebeginning to the conclusion. Paragraphs should be well crafted andunified but also highlight elements of coherence. Without these twoelements of sentence formation, an item cannot be consideredcomplete.

Whilelooking at the information above, it is correct to note that unitymay not be achieved as intended but still a sentence may becomprehensible but the same cannot be said of coherence. Coherencedetermines whether a paragraph makes sense or not. How the ideas arearranged and presented bears the greatest importance as compared tothe unity. The lexical techniques employed in a text affects how atext is going to be understood by the audience. Lexical refers to theuse of language and terminologies in writing. If not taken seriously,the lexical technique used might alter the real meaning of a text asit may deliver the theme in a different way.

Meanwhile,coordination is described as the connection of words, set of words,or phrases and sentences or similar importance and type.

Theprinciples to observe are:

  1. Through the combination of groups and words, one avoids repetition that takes away the energy from what the one’s writing

  2. Through the combination of complete sentences, one reveals the connection between the thoughts expressed in a text.

Onthe other hand, subordination clearly puts emphasis on which words,clauses, or sentences are of utmost significance in the text. Anotherdescription states that subordination is the rule of the hierarchicalstructuring of linguistic units. While this principle is highlyapplicable in syntax, semantic, phonology, and morphology, mostlinguistic works use the term in the perspective of syntax, and thisis the perception that is put into consideration here. The syntacticelements of a sentence are mostly either coordinate or subordinate toeach other. Therefore, comprehension is promoted by an understandingof coordination, and subordination alike.

Task#1: Writing two Complaint Letters

  1. Complaint Letter

(YourAddress)(Your City, State, ZIP)(e-mailaddress, if the communication is via e-mail)

(Nameof Contact Person) (ifavailable)(ifavailable)(CompanyName)(Consumer Complaint Division) (ifyou have no particular contact)(StreetAddress)(City, State, ZIP Code)



On30thMarch, I purchased a Samsung Galaxy S5 phone model number G900,serial number 13784965207593 at the Wal-Mart store in Los Angeles,California. In my possession, I have the receipt and othertransaction details like the warranty if you may need to view them. Iam highly disappointed because ever since the purchase the phone hasbeen behaving strangely from frequent button malfunctions to screennot displaying text and network bars and an overheating battery. I ama bitter customer since if the phone was faulty, why was it notdisclosed clearly? I used my entire month`s savings to make thispurchase and to get this kind of problems in the first week of usageof the device is not fair at all. In addition, prior to writing thisletter, I contacted your customer care representatives to frustratingresponses. They all lacked the prerequisite knowledge to deal withthe issue. This highlights your lack of commitment to your loyalcustomers like me who have been keeping tabs with every technologicaldevice you churn out. My previous Samsung phones have all performedexemplary well prompting me to make this purchase.

Todecide the problem, I would appreciate your efforts in offering me anew phone of reimbursing my money. Furthermore, the employees at yourcustomer care desk/center in Los Angeles should be taken for furthertraining on how to handle customer complaints, inquiries, and moreimportantly offering product and troubleshooting information. Pleasebe prompt in addressing these issues as I badly need to use my newphone. Enclosed you will find copies of the transaction including theguarantee, contract, receipt, warranty, and model and serial numberof the phone.

Ilook forward to seeing your reply and an infinite solution to myissue. I will wait until 30thApril before seeking help from a consumer protection agency or theBetter Business Bureau. Please contact me at the above-stated addressor by the following phone numbers:





  1. An Obnoxious complaint letter

(YourAddress)(Your City, State, ZIP)(e-mailaddress, if the communication is via e-mail)

(Nameof Contact Person) (ifavailable)(ifavailable)(CompanyName)(Consumer Complaint Division) (ifyou have no particular contact)(StreetAddress)(City, State, ZIP Code)



Iam Pascal Wright from 4thDowning Street, London. I am writing to let you know of my neighbors`uncouth, careless behavior and the uninhabitable condition of thehouse. First, my neighbor always makes a lot of noises at night byplaying heavy metal music throughout. I am completely annoyed withthe behavior. I have asked them to lower the volume and keep hush upat night, but they have so far declined to do so. In some extremescenarios, I cannot watch Television and unless I set the volume atthe maximum level that in turn, might harm my hearing capability.

Inaddition, they have a wild Bulldog that always barks and sometimescharges at us. Personally, I find it rude and annoying for them tocare for a dog without limiting its behavior. As a result of this, mychildren cannot attend school while the dog is in the vicinity. Theyalso, fail to do their homework when the music is played at such ahigh volume level. To conclude, I leave it up to you to coerce,persuade, silence, or evict him for us to enjoy our stay at theapartments.

Finally,while looking into the issue, please make a point of repainting ourhouse. Its walls are creepy and not pleasing to the eye. They needimmediate makeover at least to make them desirable. Second, since theonset of the rainy season last week, the roof has been leakingcausing problems for the family. As you understand, it is hazardousand illegal for us to live in such conditions yet we always pay ourrent consistently without delay. If not demanding, I request that youvisit this premises as quick as you can to carry out the necessaryrenovations.



Theabove letters display the non-satisfaction of both the Samsungcustomer and the tenant. They all express their dissatisfaction withthe goods or services they received. The first letter shows theobnoxious side of a bitter customer who is demanding for the value ofhis/her money. The writer does not need a lot of explaining butrather immediate solutions to the problems which are to get a newphone or reimbursement of her money by the product manufacturer. Thefirst letter indicates the next step the customer is willing tofollow in case her requests are not effected. The second letter isthat of a tenant who is unhappy with the noises produced by theneighbor. He/she is courteous of her words and does not make demandsbut polite requests to the landlord. The letter is trying to findsolutions to the problems which he/she shares with the landlord.Furthermore, the second letter does highlight any further steps to betaken in case the case is not resolved to her satisfaction that doesnot show a case of urgency and demand.

Letterto the Manufacturer

(Address)(City,State, ZIP)(E-mailaddress, if the communication is via e-mail)

(Nameof Contact Person) (ifavailable)(ifavailable)(CompanyName)(Consumer Complaint Division) (ifyou have no specific contact)(StreetAddress)(City, State, ZIP Code)



Iam Amy from Compton, California. I am writing to request for repairsto my power line that has stopped transmitting power leading to totalblackout in my home. Till now, I had already settled all billsrelated to this line and, therefore, it would only be fair for me toget value for my money. Currently, I am using my generator to provideus with lighting but am still not able to use all my electricappliances as the power generated by it is insufficient to sustainall of them.

Priorto this letter, I have been calling your nearby representatives whoare yet to respond. They promised to take action within two days buttill now have not done so. Therefore, by contacting you, I lookforward to prompt reply and action from that point forward. I maystate that, as a one of your loyal customers, I feel disappointedwith how this issue has been handled. I expect a company of your sizeand capability to honor to their customers’ requests immediately.

Iunderstand, the part of your contract that states that repairs cannotbe fulfilled if the consumer is carelessly handled your property. Onmy part, I have never felt any of your power appliances, thereforethis might not apply to this situation.

Ilook forward to seeing a prompt action.




Task#2: Cover Letter

  1. Professional Cover Letter

(YourAddress)(Your City, State, ZIP)(e-mailaddress, if the communication is via e-mail)

(Nameof Contact Person) (ifavailable)(ifavailable)(CompanyName)(Consumer Complaint Division) (ifyou have no particular contact)(StreetAddress)(City, State, ZIP Code)



Mystrong sales experience, background in federal sales and myachievements with client service and management, make me a suitablecandidate for the Vice President of sales positions that youadvertised in the Sunday dailies. Throughout my long career journey,I have proven my sales expertise, motivation, operational skills, andmanagement. For instance, during my tenure as director at my LincolnCreations inc., I have:

  • Improved sales units from $10 million per annum to more than $40 million.

  • Boosted backlog from $5 million in 2005 to over $20 million in 2007

  • Supervised achievement of more than 70% of total company revenue out of 5 business operational units

  • Led improvement of the business team from $70k in the backlog to $90k million in backlog in two years. In recent months, I have been able to close a $20 million deal concession that accounted for 50 percent of all company orders in 2007.

Mostof my expertise has been in companies in which I have actually ledteams to attain a common purpose. The techniques and tools I haveestablished from this experience relate directly to the skill setrequired for the VP of sales in your company. These skills are:strong organizational skills, proven leadership capabilities, theability to direct and guide the suitable resources to make use ofbusiness capture and provide advanced customer service,critical-building skills, and close familiarity with federalgovernment policies.

Iam confident I can be an integral participant on your team, and Iwould fancy the chance to show that you in discussion or interview.Within a short period of your receipt of this letter, I will get intouch with you to plan a meeting in which we can confer on how I canguide your business in achieving government deals, but humbly ask youto call me sooner at the email listed above.

Ianticipate meeting with you and bringing my talents to your company.Thank you in advance.



  1. Cover letter for a Non-Professional Post

(Address)(City,State, ZIP)(e-mailaddress, if the communication is via e-mail)

(Nameof Contact Person) (ifavailable)(ifavailable)(CompanyName)(Consumer Complaint Division) (ifyou have no particular contact)(StreetAddress)(City, State, ZIP Code)

DearSir/ Madam,


Ihereby submit my application for the above-mentioned position.Professionally, I am a sales and marketing executive but acquiredonline marketing by undergoing various professional trainings andcertifications. My experience spans a period of 10 years working invarious capacities in the sales and marketing field. I have been anaccount sales manager, customer relations officer, and a businessdevelopment manager at the three major companies I have worked for.

Currently,I am working as the Chief Sale Officer (CSO) of a blue-chip companyin Asia. I would be glad to state that, during my tenure, the companyrealized:

  • A 50 percent increase in customer acquisition

  • 70 percent improvement in customer satisfaction levels that had not been achieved before

  • 30 percent increase in the revenue generated by direct sales units

Consequently,I expect to bring the same attitude, skills and brilliance to yourcompany albeit through the now popular online platform. I have provedto be a highly flexible, adaptable and efficient professional with akeen eye for detail and results. Due to this, I consider myself themost suitable candidate for chief online business head due to myproven results.

Forfurther discussion at a time of your convenience contact me throughthe above-displayed contacts. I am looking forward to a one on onemeeting to discuss my value to your company further.



Analysisof the Letters

Inthe first letter, the writer is a sales professional using his vastexperience to persuade the prospective employer to front him as thefavorite candidate. His /her language is high and highly official. Hegives detailed examples of the achievements he/she has accomplishedin his/her career. The use of figures illustrates factual resultsthat cannot be disputed and is easy to trace. However, in my view,one`s capabilities should be placed on their past achievements butrather on what they can achieve at present. Therefore, of moreimportance would be the part where the employer needs to understandwhat the candidate is going to offer. In spite of this, the candidatehas presented him/herself well and has a probability of being calledfor interview.

Thesecond letter portrays a situation that is not easy to ascertain.First, the candidate is a sale marketing professional with a littleonline marketing background. However, he/she states that, he/she beeninvolved in trainings and certifications sessions for onlinemarketing. This is not ascertainable or since there are variousno-professional bodies offering these kinds of certifications.Furthermore, it could have been highly effective if he/she could haveindicated the name of the institutions that prescribed the onlinetrading to him/her. The language used is also wanting and does notportray the candidate as the best one among those who intend toapply. His/her chances of being hire are slim if not impossible.

Task#4: Writing Book Reviews

  1. E-mail communication with the instructor

To:Professor Greg Michael

Textbook Review: The Handbook of


Iam Amy Griffiths, one of your students in the technical writingclass. I hereby submit my review of the current textbook being usedby the class for our course. This paper represents my sincere opinionabout the book “A Handbook of ,” by Gerald J.Alred, Charles T. Brusaw, and Walter E. Oliu. It is the currenttextbook used in my technical writing class. I consider itperfect inillustrative guidance on how to compose relevant, readable andinteresting texts that observe grammatical, lexical and proficientEnglish writing procedures. The authors use a step by step kind ofinstructions to lead the learner to the foundations of technicalwriting. It exhibits simple, easy to understand the vocabulary thatcan be comprehended by a lay man in the field.

However,as I have observed, the major setback of the book is on how thetopics are arranged. Some topics are extensively covered while otherare only given minimal highlight despite being significant to thelearner. Second, the number of topics covered is not exhaustiveenough to accomplish the writing skills of those using it as aguiding principle for technical writing. To improve its overalleffectiveness and completeness, the authors of the book ought to haveincluded other topics on the sentence various forms of sentencestructure and vocabulary usage which are the basic tenets of any kindof writing. Therefore, while we are still utilizing the book for ourcourse, it is prudent for you to use more elaborations to account forthe lack of depth of the textbook.



  1. Second Book Review: The Handbook of

&quotAHandbook of ,&quot by Gerald J. Alred, Charles T.Brusaw, and Walter E. Oliu is still considered a classictechnical-writing source for learners and instructors alike. Due toits alphabetical structure and is ease of use, its more 300 entriesprovide guidance for the most general type of specialized documentsand correspondence, comprising proposals, reports, white papers andmemos. Abundant model documents and visual illustrations throughoutthe text reveal effective, practical communiqué, mirroring currentmethods for formatting materials and using technologies like e-mail.Furthermore, advice on arranging writing, revising, and researchingcomplements thorough usage of grammar, punctuation, and style toprovide complete aid with writing proficiency.

Thecurrent edition, which is the eighth in the series, is thoroughlyadjusted to cover expanded advice for the analysis of the context ofvarious writing instances, utilizing and incorporating visuals, anddealing with principled apprehension in technical writing. Improvedcoverage of studies now comprises of guidelines for different styledocumentation and more vivid demonstrations of plagiarism andcopyright concerns. Entries within the book have been updated,revised streamlined and consolidated to give the most perfect andeasy to get to the information. The book is comprehensive yetsuccinct, and it remains the immediate source authentic readers havecome to know.

Analysisof the review

Thefirst study portrays the personal feelings of a student addressingthe lecturer. She gives a direct, discrete, and sincere opinion aboutthe effectiveness of the course textbook. She uses polite, formal andstraightforward language to pass her message. The content of thewiring is majorly in the context of the first person. The criticismof the book is entirely her own. She states what she likes and notlike about the text even though it is one of her favorites.

Thesecond review involves a professionally crafted text full ofanalytical terminologies that may not be comprehended by an averagemind. The target audience of the report is scholars, students, andprofessionals who might find it easy to relate to the vocabulary andgrammar used in the writing. The writer gives an overview of what toexpect if you have not yet read the book. This review is meant for amore serious audience that is apprehensive of the content they digestand engage with since it is what imparts their language or writingproficiency as most of them use technical writing at some point intheir careers. In addition, the content of the review arewell-thought and depict the real situation as contained in the booksince the target audience easily notices any misinformation.

FurtherAnalysis: Evaluation of the Class Textbook

Thebook “The Handbook of ,” used in our class asthe textbook, is a comprehensive and succinct handout of how to learneffective technical writing skills. The book is so detailed andentails various scopes of writing. From a proposal, letter, memo,white paper, and other vital writing techniques, the book offerinsightful information on how to attain writing proficiency. Theauthors make use of the genre by classifying related topics togetherfor ease of use by the users. Secondly, the knowledge presented isnot drawn from personal conclusions but universal sets of goodpractice in technical writing. The information represents what isavailable in other sources although in a better structured andunderstandable way befitting all the users of the information thatforms an element of the discourse community. The lexical tools usedare in tandem with our class readings where we learned that the lexisused for communication was highly relevant to the target audience.

Thephilosophy of the textbook is to offer practical, unique, but readilycomprehensible texts that observe all the guidelines of writing. Italso follows the philosophy of discourse community where it utilizesinformation from other sources in the right context and citation. Thebook follows this guideline throughout the chapters making it uniformand well structured. The content used is easy to read and followthrough due to the generic presentation of information. In addition,it highly relevant to the covered topic and presents all the dynamicsinvolved in technical writing. Due to its understandability, it canbe accessed by all learners willing to impart themselves with greatwriting lessons as it offer a great complement to the knowledgealready by students, instructors, or professionals. The bookcomplements our course since it provides essential practicalexperience that is highly useful in our field of study.


Culicover,Peter W., and Ray Jackendoff. &quotSemantic subordination despitesyntactic coordination.&quot Linguisticinquiry(1997): 195-217.

Haiman,John, and Sandra A. Thompson, eds. Clausecombining in grammar and discourse.Vol. 18. John Benjamins Publishing, 1988.

Hyland,Ken. Disciplinarydiscourses: Social interactions in academic writing.University of Michigan Press, 2004.

Penrose,Ann M., and Steven B. Katz. Writingin the sciences: Exploring conventions of scientific discourse.Longman, 2010.

Swales,John. Genreanalysis: English in academic and research settings.Cambridge University Press, 1990.