SuccessfulPoultry Farm in Nigeria
SuccessfulPoultry Farm in Nigeria
Poultryfarming is a profitable venture when it is well developed andmanaged. In Nigeria, the demand for poultry products has been on theincrease both locally and externally. To start a successful poultryfarming venture, one needs to understand the basics, as well as thedynamics of the industry. To start with, one should identify thetype of poultry to be reared. Chickens, the basic poultry genres, canbe categorized into three types, broilers, cockerels, and layers.Another factor to consider is the space needed for the chicken to bereared comfortably and effectively. One mature chicken requires aspace of 3-4 square feet depending on its type. Poultry farmersrequire about ₦70, 000 to rear 50 chickens on a small scale. Thiscost can vary depending on the breed used since day old chicks costfrom ₦140 to ₦300. The cost of chicken feed is around ₦2200 perbag. A mature chicken requires 150g per day and one bag can feed 250chicken per day.
BroodingFrom Hatchery to Maturity
Day-oldchicks require effective brooding for development. Brooders should beheat-regulated to maintain the chick’s body temperature. The healthof the chicks needs to be well observed strictly to ensure comfortfor the chicks. Throughout the rearing period, chicken should undergovaccination. The vaccines include mildly invasive, mark`s, and LaSota Vaccines at the first week of rearing. Others to follow includefowl pox and infectious bronchitis vaccines. The space requirementfor a brooder is 10-14 chicks per square foot. The space requirementexpands as the chicks grow and can sometimes be a square foot perchick. Feeding the chick is also crucial starting with chicken mashand gradually feeding them with growers mash at eight weeks and thenfinisher meals at later stages. Chickens should also be constantlychecked for diseases and conduction regular vaccination. Layersstart laying at 18-24 weeks and are curled for meat at 58-72 weeks.Broilers are considered to be fully grown at 8-10 weeks during whenthey are sold for meat.
Ina given poultry farm, the structures include a brooder and the mainhousing for the chicken. Hatcheries can also be present if thechicks are hatched from within the farm. The structures should bewell ventilated, and the hygiene in the structures observed strictly.A feeding program for the chicken should ensure high nutrient feed isgiven to the chicken at regular. The recommended feed for one chickenis 120 grams per day for maximum production. The diet used to feedthe chicken should be nutritionally complete and most commercialfeeds in Nigeria are certified chicken for feeding. Chicken require alot of water which calls for the provision of safe, clean water atregular intervals. The best system for rearing large scale layers isthe use of battery cages. The structures allow for the greaterreduction in space per chicken which increases the number of layersper unit area. The cages need to be designed effectively to curtailchicken stress and thus enhance production. Economic Market Values
TheEconomic profitability of chicken farming depends on the type ofchicken reared. A mature broiler chicken sells at around ₦2500naira while layers at culling stage can be sold for meat at around₦1000. During a lifetime, layer chicken can lay up to 300 eggs andwith crates selling at ₦500 each, the chicken can earn a profit of₦2000 naira. If a farm rears a 1000 layers, it produces a28 cratesper day that earns a total ₦14000 naira. The total feeds for 1000layers are approximately four bags which sells at around ₦2200each, totaling to ₦8800 Naira. From these statistics, the farm canearn ₦5200 naira per day. The profitability of the chicken rearingventure is also wide in terms of employment along its line ofservice.
Nutritionalvalue of chicken
Chickenand another poultry meat is rich in vitamin B6 and phosphorous. It isalso rich in cholesterol and produces 231 calories per 100 grams. Thechicken meat has a high protein content of around 30 calories forcooked chicken. The meat has a high cholesterol content of over 8omilligrams. Chicken meat is the richest source of iron for the farmpoultry. Poultry provides fresh and nutritious food and has a hugeglobal demand with global consumers of poultry products preferringthem due to their nutrients and freshness.
Benefitsof Poultry Farming
Poultryfarming does not require a lot of capital per unit for startup. Witheffective poultry farming and strategic marketing of products, theventure is quite profitable. The requirement of poultry and theirproducts is vast, and demand is growing day by day as people opt fora balanced diet. An intensive poultry farm is cost effective and veryaffordable. Keeps a poultry farm ensures the production of highvalued food for a family due to the availability of the products.Poultry products are not much expensive, and most of the people canafford thus increasing the marketability of the farm products.
Poultryfarming is the most profitable agribusiness in the world. Nigeria isranked among the most chicken farming countries and was number 13 inthe world back in 2004. The art and secret behind successful chickenrearing are the use of effective farm management practices on thepoultry farm. The farm should be able to output great profits to thefarmer as well as provide employment to others. Poultry farming inNigeria can be either commercial or for local production. Thecommercial sector of poultry farming is categorized depending ondifferent types of chicken reared, species kept and the level ofinvestment.
Severalpractices are considered as best practice for the effective andsuccessful chicken farming. The type of chicken to keep, and the sizeof the venture are crucial to determining the effectiveness of thefarming. These considerations affect the capital needed for startup.The farm should be well arranged and managed for maximized profit.The profitability of the farm is linked to the health of the chicken,and thus hygiene should be strictly observed. The structures shouldbe well ventilated and lit for the chicken’s comfort. Themarketing of poultry products is well laid out for the Nigerianeconomy since more people consume their products. Many people preferthe products from the poultry since they are affordable and highlynutritious. The chicken meat is one of the richest sources of iron aswell as phosphorous components required by our bodies. Apart fromthis, chicken are also economically profitable venture with highreturns in profits. The poultry farming business is a lucrativeventure that has vast benefits to the farmers.
Amos,T. T. (2006). Analysis of backyard poultry production in Ondo State,Nigeria. InternationalJournal of Poultry Science,5(3),247-250.