Thebonds were issued at discounts. In valuation of bonds, we look at theselling price and compare it with the face value of that bond. Theselling is determined by getting the present value of the same bond(Arnold,2008).A bond has got two types of amounts that needs to be discounted. Thatis, the single amount or the principal which is paid at the end ofperiod or the maturity date and the annuities which are the interestspaid periodically.

Bondscan be issued at par, at discount or at premium. Bonds are said to beissued at par if their selling price is equal to their face value, atdiscount if selling price is less than the face value and at premiumif the selling price is greater than the face value (Arnold,2008).To determine whether the bonds at Victory Falls Company were issuedat par, at discount or at premiums, we can start by getting theselling price or the present value of the bond as shown in part Bbelow.


Discountingboth the principal and the annuities quarterly

PV=FV (1+r)-n where, r=Discounting rate = Market rate = (6/4)% =0.015

Andn = 5 × 4 = 20 periods

PV= $2100000(PVIF1.5%20)

PV= $2100000 × 0.74247 = $1559187.88

Forthe annuities

Interestrate= 8% /4 =2%

Annuity=2%*2100000= $42,000



PV=Annuities × PVIFA2%20 = 42000 × 17.1686 = $721082.82

Thereforethe selling price, SP of the bond = present value of the principleplus the present value of the annuities.

SP= 1559187.88 + 721082.82 = $2280270.71

Therefore,the issue price of the bonds on January 1, 2014 was $2280270.71

Thisprice is higher than the face value of the bonds and therefore thebonds were issued at premiums.


1stJan 2014 $ $

Cash 2280270

Premiumson bond 180270

Bondspayable 2100000


Atstraight line bases the interest rate is 8% per annum.

Ateffective interest rate, the EIR can be calculated as follows

EIR=*100% *100= 1.84188 quarterly = 7.3675% per annum.

Seethe excel spreadsheets for the amortization tables


Journalentries to record the interest expense (at straight line bases)

30thJune 2014 $ $

Interestexpense 34087

Premiumson bond 7913

Cash 42000

31stDec2014 $ $

Interestexpense 33848

Premiumson bond 8152

Cash 42000

Note:The figures are as shown in the amortization schedule as per the dateindicated.

Thesejournal entries show the balances to be shown in the income statementof the company. The amount is an expense to the company and hence itreduces the net profit.


Ateffective interest rate, the market rate changes from 6% to 7.3675%per annum.

Journalentries to record the interest expense (at effective interest rate)

30thJune 2014 $ $

Interestexpense 39652

Premiumson bond 2348

Cash 42000

31stDec2014 $ $

Interestexpense 39565

Premiumson bond 2435

Cash 42000


Usingthe straight line bases, the book value of the bonds as at:

30thJune 2014 is $2,264,561

31stDec2014 is $2,248,377

Thebook value is the remaining balance on the bond. In this case ofVictory Falls Company, the book values can be gotten from theamortization table. These value is shown in the statement offinancial position as a long term liability. It is a long termliability since the bonds have a maturity duration of 5 years andhence it is a long term obligation to the company.


Usingthe effective-interest rate method, the book value of the bonds asat:

30thJune 2014 is $2,150,481

31stDec2014 is $2,145,655 (from the amortization schedule)

Similarlythis values will also appear in the statement financial position aslong term liabilities.


Byretiring the bond on 30thJune 2015, Victory Falls Company will have utilized the bond for 1.5years. This means that the company will have to pay the full amountof the net book value of the bond plus the 1% of one- time payment.

Thejournal entries will look as follows

Straightline method-

30thJune 2015 $ $

Interestexpense 33601

Premiumson bond 8399

Cash 42000

Uponretirement of the bond, the journal entries will be as follows

Totalpayments= $2231704+ (2231704*1%)= $2254021

30thJune 2014 $ $

Premiumson bond 48565

Bondspayable 2100000

P&ampLaccount 405456

Cash 2254021

2254021 2254021

Usingthe effective interest rate-

30thJune 2015 $ $

Interestexpense 39474

Premiumson bond 2526

Cash 42000

Uponretirement of the bonds

Totalpayments= $2231704+ (2140650*1%) = $2,162,056

30thJune 2014 $ $

Premiumson bond 14483

Bondspayable 2100000

P&ampLaccount 47573

Cash 2162056

2162056 2162056


ArnoldG. (2008).Corporate financial management 4thedition.Britain: Pearson Education.

Kiesos.(2014). howbond market pricing woks.Retrieved March 25, 2015, from Investopedia:

EugeneB. &amp Michael E.(2008). FinancialManagement: Theory &amp Practice Branzil:Amazon.