Statistical Questionnaire Analysis

StatisticalQuestionnaire Analysis

ContinuingProfessional Development Training Needs of Medical laboratoryPersonnel

Analysis

Designof Quality of Assurance Content

Evidence-basedlaboratory medicine

Thetable below presents the results of evidence based-laboratorymedicine.

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp Evidence-based laboratory medicine

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

3

1.5

1.5

1.5

Disagree

13

6.5

6.5

8.0

Neither Agree/Disagree

20

10.0

10.0

18.0

Agree

124

62.0

62.0

80.0

Strongly Agree

40

20.0

20.0

100.0

Total

200

100.0

100.0

Fromthe table above, the most of the respondents, 124, agreed that theevidence-based laboratory medicine should be included in design ofthe quality assurance content, 40 strongly agreed, 20 neither agreednor disagreed, 13 disagreed and 3 strongly disagreed. From thecumulative percent, it can be observed that the greatest number ofrespondents, about 62% agreed the evidence-based laboratory medicinewas necessary for designing the quality assurance content.

Aresults-oriented approach to learning, which is learning-centred, iscrucial in educating pathologists

Beloware the results of responses on need for a results-oriented approachto learning, which is learning-centred, is crucial in educatingpathologists

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp A results-oriented approach to learning, which is learning-centred, is crucial in educating pathologists

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

3

1.5

1.5

1.5

Disagree

6

3.0

3.0

4.5

Neither Agree/Disagree

18

9.0

9.0

13.5

Agree

120

60.0

60.0

73.5

Strongly Agree

53

26.5

26.5

100.0

Total

200

100.0

100.0

Fromthe table above, mostof the respondents, 120, agreed that the aresults-oriented approach to learning, which is learning-centered wasnecessary for the design of qualityassurance content, 53 strongly agreed, 18 neither agreed nordisagreed, 6 disagreed and 3 strongly disagreed. From the cumulativepercent, it can be observed that the greatest number of respondents,about 86.5% agreed aresults-oriented approach to learning, which is learning-centered, iscrucial in educating pathologists.

Basicknowledge that will enable analysts to explore the quality assurancediscipline

Beloware the results for the responses on need for basic knowledge thatwill enable analysts to explore the quality assurance discipline indesign of quality assurance content

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp Basic knowledge that will enable analysts to explore the quality assurance discipline

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

8

4.0

4.0

4.0

Disagree

22

11.0

11.0

15.0

Neither Agree/Disagree

85

42.5

42.5

57.5

Agree

80

40.0

40.0

97.5

Strongly Agree

5

2.5

2.5

100.0

Total

200

100.0

100.0

Fromthe table above, mostof the respondents, 85, neither agreed or disagreed that the basicknowledge that will enable analysts to explore the quality assurancediscipline was necessary for the design of qualityassurance content, 5 strongly agreed,80 agreed, 22 disagreed and 8strongly disagreed. From the cumulative percent, it can be concludedthat the highest percentage neither agreed nor disagreed on the needfor basic knowledge in exploring quality assurance discipline.Therefore, there is need to reconsider incorporating this course inthe quality assurance content.

Safety

Belowtable presents the results for the responses on the need for safetyin design of quality assurance content

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp Safety

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

3

1.5

1.5

1.5

Disagree

9

4.5

4.5

6.0

Neither Agree/Disagree

21

10.5

10.5

16.5

Agree

93

46.5

46.5

63.0

Strongly Agree

74

37.0

37.0

100.0

Total

200

100.0

100.0

Fromthe table above, mostof the respondents, 93, agreed that the safetywas necessary for the design of qualityassurance content, 74 strongly agreed, 21 neither agreed nordisagreed, 9 disagreed and 3 strongly disagreed. From the cumulativepercent, 16.5 percent of the respondents either disagreed or gave noresponse while the rest agreed that safety was necessary. Thisimplies that Safety should be included while designing the qualityassurance content.

Learningto name the parameters for measuring accuracy and precision concepts

Thetable below presents the results of responses on need for inclusionof learning to name the parameters for measuring accuracy andprecision concepts in design of quality assurance content.

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp Learning to name the parameters for measuring accuracy and precision concepts

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

19

9.5

9.5

9.5

Disagree

8

4.0

4.0

13.5

Neither Agree/Disagree

54

27.0

27.0

40.5

Agree

45

22.5

22.5

63.0

Strongly Agree

74

37.0

37.0

100.0

Total

200

100.0

100.0

Fromthe table above, mostof the respondents, 74, strongly agreed that the learningto name the parameters for measuring accuracy and precision conceptswas necessary for the design ofqualityassurance content, 45 agreed, 54 neither agreed nor disagreed, 8disagreed and 19 strongly disagreed. From the cumulative percent,almost half of the respondents, 45 percent, disagreed or wereundecided on whether learningto name the parameters for measuring accuracy and precision conceptswas necessary for the design ofqualityassurance content, while 55 percent agreed. This means that thecourse should be considered while designing the content.

Evaluationand selection of analytical methods and equipment

Thetable below presents the responses on need for evaluation andselection of analytical methods and equipment in design of qualityassurance content.

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp Evaluation and selection of analytical methods and equipment

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

27

13.5

13.5

13.5

Disagree

30

15.0

15.0

28.5

Neither Agree/Disagree

46

23.0

23.0

51.5

Agree

72

36.0

36.0

87.5

Strongly Agree

25

12.5

12.5

100.0

Total

200

100.0

100.0

Fromthe table above, mostof the respondents, 72, agreed that the evaluationand selection of analytical methods and equipment was necessary forthe design of qualityassurance content, 25 strongly agreed, 46 neither agreed nordisagreed, 30 disagreed and 27 strongly disagreed. Also, from thecumulative percentages, 48.5 percent agreed that this was necessarywhile the rest 51.5 percent were either undecided or disagreed. Thisimplies the need to review the inclusion in designing the qualityassurance content.

Definition,establishment and use of reference ranges

Thetable below presents the responses on the need for definition,establishment and use of reference ranges in the design of qualityassurance content.

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp Definition, establishment and use of reference ranges

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

20

10.0

10.0

10.0

Disagree

33

16.5

16.5

26.5

Neither Agree/Disagree

28

14.0

14.0

40.5

Agree

91

45.5

45.5

86.0

Strongly Agree

28

14.0

14.0

100.0

Total

200

100.0

100.0

Fromthe table above, mostof the respondents, 91, agreed that the definition,establishment and use of reference ranges was necessary for thedesign ofqualityassurance content, 28 strongly agreed, 28 neither agreed nordisagreed, 33 disagreed and 20 strongly disagreed. This can also beconfirmed from the cumulative percentages, where 59.5% was in for theidea while 40.5 percent were either undecided or disagreed.

Qualityachievement techniques

Thetable below presents the results of the need for quality achievementtechniques for the design of quality assurance content.

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp Quality achievement techniques

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

22

11.0

11.0

11.0

Disagree

15

7.5

7.5

18.5

Neither Agree/Disagree

28

14.0

14.0

32.5

Agree

112

56.0

56.0

88.5

Strongly Agree

23

11.5

11.5

100.0

Total

200

100.0

100.0

Fromthe table above, mostof the respondents, 112, agreed that the qualityachievement techniques was necessary for the design of qualityassurance content, 23 strongly agreed, 28 neither agreed nordisagreed, 15 disagreed and 22 strongly disagreed. This is clear fromthe cumulative percentages where 32.5 percent either disagreed orwere undecided on whether this was necessary, meaning 67.5 percentsupported the idea, hence the need for its inclusion in designing thequality assurance content.

Datamanagement, report writing and presentation skills

Thetable below presents the need for data management, report writing andpresentation skills in design of quality assurance content.

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp Data management, report writing and presentation skills

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

26

13.0

13.0

13.0

Disagree

30

15.0

15.0

28.0

Neither Agree/Disagree

36

18.0

18.0

46.0

Agree

86

43.0

43.0

89.0

Strongly Agree

22

11.0

11.0

100.0

Total

200

100.0

100.0

Fromthe table above, mostof the respondents, 86, agreed that the datamanagement, report writing and presentation skills was necessary forthe design of qualityassurance content, 22 strongly agreed, 36 neither agreed nordisagreed, 30 disagreed and 26 strongly disagreed. The decision canbe based on cumulative percentages where 46 percent were eitherundecided or disagreed while 54 percent agreed that datamanagement, report writing and presentation skills was necessary forthe design of qualityassurance content.

Point-of-CareTesting

Thetable below presents the results on the need for point-of-caretesting for the design of quality assurance content.

&nbsp Point-of-care testing

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

37

18.5

18.5

18.5

Disagree

29

14.5

14.5

33.0

Neither Agree/Disagree

33

16.5

16.5

49.5

Agree

92

46.0

46.0

95.5

Strongly Agree

9

4.5

4.5

100.0

Total

200

100.0

100.0

Fromthe table above, mostof the respondents, 92, agreed that the point-of-care testingwas necessary for the design of qualityassurance content, 9 strongly agreed, 33 neither agreed nordisagreed, 29 disagreed and 37 strongly disagreed. From thecumulative percentages, it can be observed that 49.5 percent wereeither not in for the idea or were undecided, meaning only 50.5percent agreed that this should be included. This implies the need toreconsider point-of-care testing when designing the quality assurancecontent.

Statisticsin laboratory medicine

Thetable below represents the responses on the need for statistics inlaboratory medicine in design of quality assurance content.

&nbsp Statistics in laboratory medicine

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

11

5.5

5.5

5.5

Disagree

11

5.5

5.5

11.0

Neither Agree/Disagree

48

24.0

24.0

35.0

Agree

100

50.0

50.0

85.0

Strongly Agree

30

15.0

15.0

100.0

Total

200

100.0

100.0

Fromthe table above, mostof the respondents, 100, agreed that the statisticsin laboratory medicine was necessary for the design of qualityassurance content, 11 strongly agreed, 48 neither agreed nordisagreed, 11 disagreed and 11 strongly disagreed. This is equivalentto 35.5 percent of respondents who either disagreed or were undecidedand 65 percent agreed hence need to include the course whiledesigning the quality assurance content.

SpecimenManagement

Thetable below presents the responses on the need for specimenmanagement in the design of quality assurance content.

&nbsp Specimen management

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

11

5.5

5.5

5.5

Disagree

7

3.5

3.5

9.0

Neither Agree/Disagree

35

17.5

17.5

26.5

Agree

108

54.0

54.0

80.5

Strongly Agree

39

19.5

19.5

100.0

Total

200

100.0

100.0

Fromthe table above, mostof the respondents, 108, agreed that the specimen management wasnecessary for the design of qualityassurance content, 39 strongly agreed, 35 neither agreed nordisagreed, 7 disagreed and 11 strongly disagreed. Cumulatively, 26.5percent were either undecided or disagreed while 73.5 percent agreed,hence specimen management should be included in while designing thecontent.

LaboratoryDisease Surveillance

Thetable below presents the results on responses regarding the inclusionof laboratory disease surveillance during the design of qualityassurance content.

&nbsp Laboratory and disease surveillance

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

9

4.5

4.5

4.5

Disagree

10

5.0

5.0

9.5

Neither Agree/Disagree

23

11.5

11.5

21.0

Agree

55

27.5

27.5

48.5

Strongly Agree

103

51.5

51.5

100.0

Total

200

100.0

100.0

Fromthe table above, mostof the respondents, 103, strongly agreed that the laboratory diseasesurveillancewas necessary for the design of qualityassurance content, 55agreed, 23 neither agreed nor disagreed, 10disagreed and 9 strongly disagreed. Cumulatively, 21 percent wereeither undecided or disagreed on the inclusion of laboratory diseasesurveillance in quality content while 79 percent agreed. This impliesthat the course was necessary and should be considered.

EquipmentMaintenance

Thetable below presents the results on the need for inclusion ofequipment maintenance for the design of quality assurance content.

&nbsp Equipment maintenance

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

7

3.5

3.5

3.5

Disagree

22

11.0

11.0

14.5

Neither Agree/Disagree

39

19.5

19.5

34.0

Agree

75

37.5

37.5

71.5

Strongly Agree

57

28.5

28.5

100.0

Total

200

100.0

100.0

Fromthe table above, mostof the respondents, 75, agreed that the aequipment maintenance necessary for the design of qualityassurance content, 57 strongly agreed, 39 neither agreed nordisagreed, 22 disagreed and 7 strongly disagreed. Those who agreedwere cumulatively 66 percent and 34 percent were either undecided ordisagreed, hence the need to reconsider this course when designingthe quality assurance content.

Expressingthe relationship between accuracy and precision concepts and the roleof these concepts in quality goals

Thetable below presents the results on the need for expressingthe relationship between accuracy and precision concepts and the roleof these concepts in quality goals in the design of quality assurancecontent.

&nbsp Expressing the relationship between accuracy and precision concepts and the role of these concepts in quality goals

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

23

11.5

11.5

11.5

Disagree

25

12.5

12.5

24.0

Neither Agree/Disagree

21

10.5

10.5

34.5

Agree

111

55.5

55.5

90.0

Strongly Agree

20

10.0

10.0

100.0

Total

200

100.0

100.0

Fromthe table above, mostof the respondents, 111, agreed that the expressingthe relationship between accuracy and precision concepts and the roleof these concepts in quality goals was necessary for the design ofqualityassurance content, 20 strongly agreed, 21 neither agreed nordisagreed, 25 disagreed and 23 strongly disagreed. Cumulatively, 34.5percent either disagreed or were undecided while 63.5 percent agreedthat the course was necessary, hence the need for its inclusion whendesigning the content.

QualityAssurance Project

Thetable below presents the results on responses regarding the offersof quality assurance project to the learners and educators.

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp Offers various advantages to the learners and educators as well as to society hence, it should be used in laboratory learning

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

7

3.5

3.5

3.5

Disagree

43

21.5

21.5

25.0

Neither Agree/Disagree

36

18.0

18.0

43.0

Agree

44

22.0

22.0

65.0

Strongly Agree

70

35.0

35.0

100.0

Total

200

100.0

100.0

Fromthe table above, mostof the respondents, 70, strongly agreed that the quality assuranceproject offersvarious advantages to the learners and educators as well as tosociety,44 agreed, 36 neither agreed nor disagreed, 43 disagreed and 7strongly disagreed. Cumulatively, this can be translated to 57percent agreement and 43 percent disagreement and undecided. Thisimplies that the quality assurance project was necessary both for thelearners and the society at large.

Thetable below presents the responses regarding the quality assuranceproject offering the knowledge on outcome to ensure understanding ofthe materials.

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp Offers knowledge about the outcome so that the reason for studying the material is understood, and the total picture is made clear

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

16

8.0

8.0

8.0

Disagree

31

15.5

15.5

23.5

Neither Agree/Disagree

48

24.0

24.0

47.5

Agree

77

38.5

38.5

86.0

Strongly Agree

28

14.0

14.0

100.0

Total

200

100.0

100.0

Fromthe table above, mostof the respondents, 77, agreed that the quality assurance projectoffersknowledge on outcome to ensure understanding of the materials,28 strongly agreed, 48 neither agreed nor disagreed, 31 disagreed and16 strongly disagreed. This is equivalent to 47.5 percent of thosewho either disagreed or were undecided and 52.5 percent of those whoagreed.

Knowledgeon results evaluation and motivation in to achieve them

Thetable below presents the results on the responses regarding thequality assurance project in providing knowledge on resultsevaluation and motivation in to achieve them.

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp Offers knowledge about the results of the evaluation and gives the motivation to achieve them

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

20

10.0

10.0

10.0

Disagree

40

20.0

20.0

30.0

Neither Agree/Disagree

44

22.0

22.0

52.0

Agree

82

41.0

41.0

93.0

Strongly Agree

14

7.0

7.0

100.0

Total

200

100.0

100.0

Fromthe table above, mostof the respondents, 82, strongly agreed that the training offersknowledgeon results evaluation and motivation in to achieve them, 14 agreed,44 neither agreed nor disagreed, 40 disagreed and 20stronglydisagreed. From the cumulative percentage, only 48 percent of therespondents agreed, meaning quality assurance project does notnecessary offer results of evaluation and the motivation to achievethem.

Thetable below presents the results on training offering learnersself-spacing to enable them plan their study time in order to matchtheir limitations and abilities.

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp Offers learners self-pacing, so they can plan their study time to match their abilities and limitations

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

17

8.5

8.5

8.5

Disagree

24

12.0

12.0

20.5

Neither Agree/Disagree

62

31.0

31.0

51.5

Agree

61

30.5

30.5

82.0

Strongly Agree

36

18.0

18.0

100.0

Total

200

100.0

100.0

Fromthe table above, mostof the respondents, 22, neither agreed nor disagreed that thetraining learnersself-spacing to enable them plan their study time so as to matchtheir limitations and abilities,61 agreed, 36 strongly agreed, 24 disagreed and 17 stronglydisagreed. This is reflected from the cumulative percentages where51.5 percent either disagreed or were undecided.

Opportunitiesfor repetition and remedial work based on individual needs

Thetable below presents the results on the training presentingopportunities for repetition and remedial work based on individualneeds

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp Offers opportunities for repetition and remedial work, according to individual needs

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

17

8.5

8.5

8.5

Disagree

32

16.0

16.0

24.5

Neither Agree/Disagree

45

22.5

22.5

47.0

Agree

89

44.5

44.5

91.5

Strongly Agree

17

8.5

8.5

100.0

Total

200

100.0

100.0

Fromthe table above, mostof the respondents, 89, agreed that the training offers opportunitiesfor repetition and remedial work based on individual needs, 17agreed, 45 neither agreed nor disagreed, 32 disagreed and 17 stronglydisagreed. Cumulatively, those who agreed were 53 percent while thosewho either disagreed or were undecided comprised of 47 percent.

PathologyTechnician, role and experience

Thebelow tables presents the responses obtained regarding the needs forthe trainings in promoting role and experience of the pathology(medical) technician.

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp It is critical that Pathology (Medical) Laboratory Technician communicate effectively with clinicians to verify clinical history, appearance and requirements

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

5

2.5

2.5

2.5

Disagree

11

5.5

5.5

8.0

Neither Agree/Disagree

20

10.0

10.0

18.0

Agree

52

26.0

26.0

44.0

Strongly Agree

112

56.0

56.0

100.0

Total

200

100.0

100.0

Thegreatest number of respondents 112 strongly agreed and 52 agreed thatcommunication was necessary to verify the clinical history,appearance and requirements. However, 4 strongly disagreed and 11disagreed while 20 of the respondents neither agreed nor disagreed.This is reflected from the cumulative percentages where those whoagreed were 82 percent and those who either disagreed or wereundecided were 18 percent.

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp Pathology Laboratory Technician must have good judgment, be conscious of the patient’s welfare and always strive to provide an accurate diagnosis

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

32

16.0

16.0

16.0

Disagree

12

6.0

6.0

22.0

Neither Agree/Disagree

37

18.5

18.5

40.5

Agree

97

48.5

48.5

89.0

Strongly Agree

22

11.0

11.0

100.0

Total

200

100.0

100.0

Fromthe table above, the level of agreement on the need for properjudgment in providing accurate diagnosis was high, 97 agreed and 22strongly agreed. 32 and 12 strongly disagreed and agreedrespectively, while 37 neither agreed nor disagreed. Cumulatively,this is equivalent to 59.5 percent agreement.

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp Pathology (medical) Laboratory Technician must constantly seek out new knowledge and adopt new practices as they become available

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

22

11.0

11.0

11.0

Disagree

16

8.0

8.0

19.0

Neither Agree/Disagree

12

6.0

6.0

25.0

Agree

149

74.5

74.5

99.5

Strongly Agree

1

.5

.5

100.0

Total

200

100.0

100.0

Thegreatest number of respondents, 149, agreed and 1 strongly agreedthat a medical lab technician must constantly seek knowledge andadopt any new practices based on their availability. On the otherhand, 22 strongly disagreed and 16 agreed, while 12 neither agreednor disagreed. Cumulatively, this is equivalent to 75% agreement.

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp Pathology Laboratory Technician must manage the clinician’s expectations and ensure that they are realistic

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

5

2.5

2.5

2.5

Disagree

30

15.0

15.0

17.5

Neither Agree/Disagree

58

29.0

29.0

46.5

Agree

97

48.5

48.5

95.0

Strongly Agree

10

5.0

5.0

100.0

Total

200

100.0

100.0

Thetable above illustrates that 97 respondents agreed and 10 stronglyagreed the need to manage the expectations of the clinician to ensurethat they remain realistic. Nevertheless, 35 respondents were opposedto the idea. This translates to cumulative percent of 53.5%agreement.

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp My clinical experiences in pathology laboratories were primarily working rather than learning experiences

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

31

15.5

15.5

15.5

Disagree

23

11.5

11.5

27.0

Neither Agree/Disagree

16

8.0

8.0

35.0

Agree

62

31.0

31.0

66.0

Strongly Agree

68

34.0

34.0

100.0

Total

200

100.0

100.0

Thetable above shows that 54 respondents believed that working as apathology technician was mostly working instead of being a learningexperience. However, the highest number of respondents, 130, wasopposed to this, and 16 respondents neither agreed nor disagreed.This is equivalent to 65 percent agreement.

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp My Pathology (medical) Laboratory Technician program was a positive learning duplicated

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

5

2.5

2.5

2.5

Disagree

35

17.5

17.5

20.0

Neither Agree/Disagree

38

19.0

19.0

39.0

Agree

111

55.5

55.5

94.5

Strongly Agree

11

5.5

5.5

100.0

Total

200

100.0

100.0

Thetable above shows that most respondents, 122, believed that theprogram was a duplicated positive learning, 40 disagreed while 38neither agreed nor disagreed. This is equivalent to cumulativepercent of 61 percent agreement.

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp My Pathology(medical) Laboratory Technician program was a positive learning experience

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

30

15.0

15.0

15.0

Disagree

40

20.0

20.0

35.0

Neither Agree/Disagree

14

7.0

7.0

42.0

Agree

113

56.5

56.5

98.5

Strongly Agree

3

1.5

1.5

100.0

Total

200

100.0

100.0

Itcan be observed from the table above that the highest number ofrespondents, 116, believed that the program was a positive learningexperience, 70 disagreed while 14 neither agreed nor disagreed.Cumulatively, this is equivalent to 58 percent agreement.

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp Working as a Pathology (medical) Laboratory Technician provides a sense of accomplishment

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

3

1.5

1.5

1.5

Disagree

4

2.0

2.0

3.5

Neither Agree/Disagree

20

10.0

10.0

13.5

Agree

134

67.0

67.0

80.5

Strongly Agree

39

19.5

19.5

100.0

Total

200

100.0

100.0

Thetable above shows that most people, 173, agreed that working as apathology lab technician gives a sense of accomplishment, 7 disagreedwhile 20 neither agreed nor disagreed. Cumulatively, this isequivalent to 86.5 percent agreement.

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp There are very good opportunities for advancement in the Pathology (medical) Laboratory Technician

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

3

1.5

1.5

1.5

Disagree

6

3.0

3.0

4.5

Neither Agree/Disagree

18

9.0

9.0

13.5

Agree

120

60.0

60.0

73.5

Strongly Agree

53

26.5

26.5

100.0

Total

200

100.0

100.0

Itcan be observed from the table above that the greatest number ofrespondents, 173, believed that there are good advancement inpathology lab technician, 9 disagreed while 18 neither agreed nordisagreed. Cumulatively, this is equivalent to 86.5 percentagreement.

&nbsp There are good job openings for Pathology (medical) Laboratory Technician

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

3

1.5

1.5

1.5

Disagree

8

4.0

4.0

5.5

Neither Agree/Disagree

21

10.5

10.5

16.0

Agree

93

46.5

46.5

62.5

Strongly Agree

75

37.5

37.5

100.0

Total

200

100.0

100.0

Thetable above shows that 168 respondents agreed that there are good jobopenings for the pathology lab technician, 11 disagreed while 21neither agreed nor disagreed. Cumulatively, the level of agreement is84 percent.

ReliabilityStatistics

Reliabilityshould be given priority when the variables that are obtained fromsummated scales act as predictor components for the objective models(Koning &amp Philip, 2003). The summated scales present theinterrelated items that help in measuring the underlying constructs,hence the need to determine the whether the same questions can elicitsimilar responses when administered to the same respondents. Alpha isan important tool used in measuring Cronbach alpha. This is animportant numerical reliability coefficient whose computation isdependent on reliability of the test in relation to other tests(Richardson, 2007). This was carried out for the responses obtainedfor quality assurance content, quality assurance project and role andexperience of pathology laboratory technician and the results arepresented as below.

QualityAssurance Content

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach`s Alpha

Cronbach`s Alpha Based on Standardized Items

N of Items

.987

.987

15

Thealpha coefficient for 35 items is 0.987, equivalent to 98.7%. thisimplies that that the items to be trained on in quality assurancecontent have high degree of internal consistency. Studies show that areliability coefficient of 70% and more is ‘acceptable’.

QualityAssurance Project

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach`s Alpha

Cronbach`s Alpha Based on Standardized Items

N of Items

.992

.993

10

Thealpha coefficient for 35 items is 0.992, equivalent to 99.2%. Thisimplies that that the items to be trained on in quality assuranceproject have high degree of internal consistency. Studies show that areliability coefficient of 70% and more is ‘acceptable’.

PathologyLaboratory Technician

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach`s Alpha

Cronbach`s Alpha Based on Standardized Items

N of Items

.978

.982

10

Thealpha coefficient for 35 items is 0.995, equivalent to 99.5%. Thisimplies that that the roles and experiences of medical labtechnicians have high degree of internal consistency. Studies showthat a reliability coefficient of 70% and more is ‘acceptable’.

Cronbachis a reliability index and ranges from 0 to 1. This coefficientdescribes reliability of the factors that are extracted fromdichotomous scales such as Likert scale, a higher score indicates thehigh reliability of the generated scale (Johnson &amp Patricia,2000).

Onesample test at 95% confidence level

Aone sample t-test was performed to test whether the sample meandiffered significantly from hypothesized value.

Means at 95% Confidence Level: Quality Assurance Content

One-Sample Test

Test Value = 0

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp Evidence-based laboratory medicine

66.687

199

.000

3.925

3.81

4.04

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp A results-oriented approach to learning, which is learning-centred, is crucial in educating pathologists

73.809

199

.000

4.070

3.96

4.18

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp Basic knowledge that will enable analysts to explore the quality assurance discipline

54.872

199

.000

3.260

3.14

3.38

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp Safety

66.261

199

.000

4.130

4.01

4.25

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp Learning to name the parameters for measuring accuracy and precision concepts

41.854

199

.000

3.735

3.56

3.91

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp Evaluation and selection of analytical methods and equipment

36.574

199

.000

3.190

3.02

3.36

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp Definition, establishment and use of reference ranges

39.574

199

.000

3.370

3.20

3.54

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp Quality achievement techniques

43.409

199

.000

3.495

3.34

3.65

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp Data management, report writing and presentation skills

37.540

199

.000

3.240

3.07

3.41

&nbsp Point-of-care testing

34.684

199

.000

3.035

2.86

3.21

&nbsp Statistics in laboratory medicine

52.017

199

.000

3.635

3.50

3.77

&nbsp Specimen management

54.530

199

.000

3.785

3.65

3.92

&nbsp Laboratory and disease surveillance

53.462

199

.000

4.165

4.01

4.32

&nbsp Equipment maintenance

48.898

199

.000

3.765

3.61

3.92

&nbsp Expressing the relationship between accuracy and precision concepts and the role of these concepts in quality goals

40.829

199

.000

3.400

3.24

3.56

Forquality assurance content, the test value was zero and it can beobserved that the means are greater than the hypothesized ‘0’value, meaning that all the trainings were critical and should beincluded in design of quality assurance content.

QualityAssurance Project

One-Sample Test

Test Value = 0

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp Offers various advantages to the learners and educators as well as to society hence, it should be used in laboratory learning

40.901

199

.000

3.635

3.46

3.81

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp Offers knowledge about the outcome so that the reason for studying the material is understood, and the total picture is made clear

41.488

199

.000

3.350

3.19

3.51

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp Offers knowledge about the results of the evaluation and gives the motivation to achieve them

39.470

199

.000

3.150

2.99

3.31

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp Offers learners self-pacing, so they can plan their study time to match their abilities and limitations

41.062

199

.000

3.375

3.21

3.54

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp Offers opportunities for repetition and remedial work, according to individual needs

42.237

199

.000

3.285

3.13

3.44

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp Offers the opportunity to study in greater depth if special interest in an aspect is aroused

37.428

199

.000

3.355

3.18

3.53

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp Fosters the development of self-discipline in study habits

41.243

199

.000

3.780

3.60

3.96

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp Ensures the availability of personnel in resource centres at reasonable times to assist with individual learning difficulties

52.179

199

.000

3.630

3.49

3.77

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp Provides educators with greater job satisfaction and a sense of achievement, since learners who study better deliver better results as employees

38.859

199

.000

3.395

3.22

3.57

&nbsp Gives educators an opportunity to provide students with individual attention

40.379

199

.000

3.325

3.16

3.49

Forquality assurance project, the test value was zero and it can beobserved that the means are greater than the hypothesized ‘0’value, meaning that all the trainings are critical and should beincluded in design of quality assurance project.

PathologyLaboratory Technician

One-Sample Test

Test Value = 0

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp It is critical that Pathology (Medical) Laboratory Technician communicate effectively with clinicians to verify clinical history, appearance and requirements

59.440

199

.000

4.275

4.13

4.42

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp Pathology Laboratory Technician must have good judgment, be conscious of the patient’s welfare and always strive to provide an accurate diagnosis

38.053

199

.000

3.325

3.15

3.50

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp Pathology (medical) Laboratory Technician must constantly seek out new knowledge and adopt new practices as they become available

46.943

199

.000

3.455

3.31

3.60

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp Pathology Laboratory Technician must manage the clinician’s expectations and ensure that they are realistic

53.834

199

.000

3.385

3.26

3.51

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp My clinical experiences in pathology laboratories were primarily working rather than learning experiences

34.822

199

.000

3.565

3.36

3.77

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp My Pathology (medical) Laboratory Technician program was a positive learning duplicated

52.438

199

.000

3.440

3.31

3.57

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp My Pathology(medical) Laboratory Technician program was a positive learning experience

36.691

199

.000

3.095

2.93

3.26

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp Working as a Pathology (medical) Laboratory Technician provides a sense of accomplishment

79.219

199

.000

4.010

3.91

4.11

&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp There are very good opportunities for advancement in the Pathology (medical) Laboratory Technician

73.809

199

.000

4.070

3.96

4.18

&nbsp There are good job openings for Pathology (medical) Laboratory Technician

67.340

199

.000

4.145

4.02

4.27

Forroles and experience of pathology laboratory technicians, the testvalue was zero and it can be observed that the means are greater thanthe hypothesized ‘0’ value, meaning that all the program iscritical and necessary in enhancing the roles and experience ofpathology lab technicians..

Discussionand Recommendations

Designof Quality Assurance Content

Basedon the means, it can be concluded that in the order of the mostimportant training need is development of result oriented approach tolearning which is learning-centered and is crucial in educating thepathologists. This should be followed by evidence-based laboratorymedicine and safety. Basic knowledge that will enhance the analysisto explore quality assurance discipline should follow, then specimenmanagement, laboratory and disease surveillance, statistics inlaboratory medicine, equipment maintenance, quality achievementtechniques, learning to name the parameters for measuring accuracyand precision concepts, expressing the relationship between accuracyand precision concepts and the role of these concepts in qualitygoals. These should be followed by definition, establishment and useof reference material, data management, presentation skills andreport writing, evaluation and selection of analytical methods andequipment, and finally, the point-of-care testing should be designedas the last item. This is presented in the figure below 1 below

Figure1: QualityAssurance Content

Designof Quality Assurance Project

Thedesign of quality assurance content should be based on the followingitems, based on the order of significance in medical laboratoryenvironment. First, the training should ensure availability ofpersonnel centres, offer opportunity for repetition and remedialwork, offer knowledge on outcome to enhance understanding, enhanceself-discipline in study habits, offer the learners self-pacing toenable them plan their study time, enhance attention of educators totheir students, offer knowledge on evaluation and motivates thestudents to achieve them, enhance job satisfaction to the educators,and finally, the quality assurance project should arouse the need forfurther study and expansion of in depth knowledge. This is presentedin the figure 2 below.

Figure2: QualityAssurance Project

PathologyLab technicians

Accordingto the respondents, the highest level of confidence in this area isthat working as a pathologists offers the greatest sense ofaccomplishment and this is followed by the availability ofopportunities for advancement in pathology laboratory technician. This was followed by students feeling that there are goodopportunities for the pathology laboratory technician, communicationand management of the expectations to ensure that they remainrealistic. A greater number believed that the program duplicated thepositive learning experience and noted that medical laboratorytechnicians must constantly look for ways of adopting new technology.In conclusion, it can be noted from the findings that pathology labtechnicians should consider their experience as learning experiencesrather than working.

Thisis presented in the table below 3 below.

Figure3: Roleand Experience of Pathology Laboratory Technician

Inconfidence level tests and the means, a confidence interval of atleast 2.5 percent for both the lower and upper section illustratesthe acceptance of the test since the scale used is 5 (Likert scale).Therefore, it can be said that all the trainings in quality assurancecontent, quality assurance project and pathology lab technician aresignificant(Hayes, 1998).

Summary

Inthis paper, three statistical tests were used. These are descriptivestatistics, reliability tests and scaling at 95% confidence interval.From the descriptive statistics, the frequency and cumulativepercentages for the responses were evaluated. In this case, thevariables were each presented in tables with the analysis done basedon number of responses on each scale (5 point Likert Scale). Thispresents the level of agreement or disagreement towards a certainvariable. On the other hand, the reliability tests have beenperformed using the Cronbach coefficient which depicts thereliability of generated scale. This normally ranges from 0 to 1,with a higher value reflecting a higher degree of reliability(Becker, 2000). The quality assurance content had a index of 0.987,quality assurance project had 0.982 and role and experience ofpathology lab technician was 0.993. comparing the three in terms ofreliability, roles and experience of pathology lab technician is themost reliable, followed by quality assurance content and finally thequality assurance project. However, it can be observed that theCronbach values are considerably higher than 0, hence reliability ofthe trainings across the three categories.

Onthe other hand, the scale tests at 95% confidence intervals, reflectsthe significance of the trainings since the means are higher than 2.5or 50% of the scale and provide the means from where the priority indesign is based.

Generally,all the three statistical tests have been crucial in determining theinclusion of the trainings in design of quality assurance for medicallab technicians. For instance, while the descriptive statisticsprovides the level of agreement, the scaling at 95% confidence givesthe means that help in prioritizing the trainings during the designof the content and project.

References

Becker,G. (2000). Creating Comparability Among Reliability Coefficients: TheCase Of Cronbach Alpha And Cohen Kappa. PsychologicalReports 87(7),1171.

Hayes,A. (1998). SPSS Procedures for Approximate Randomization Tests.BehaviorResearch Methods, Instruments, &amp Computers 30(3),536-434.

Johnson,R., &amp Patricia, K. (2000). ElementaryStatistics.Pacific Grove: Duxbury.

Koning,A. J., &amp Philip, H. (2003). ConfidenceIntervals for Cronbach`s Coefficient Alpha Values.Rotterdam: Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM).

Richardson,E. (2007). Editorial: Descriptive Statistics. Foot&amp Ankle International 28(12),1217-220.