Sources and Consumption of Water

Sourcesand Consumption of Water


Sourcesand Consumption of Water

Generally,water supplied to homes, schools and other institutions come from twomain sources: surface and ground water (Makonnen &amp Hoekstra,2011). Ground water is obtained by drilling wells, while surfacewater is collected on the earth-surface (rain-water) or water bodiessuch as rivers, lakes and seas. The United States EnvironmentalProtection Agency (EPA) confirmed that the majority of water systemsthat serve social institutions are largely supplied by municipalwater systems which rely on surface water (Makonnen &amp Hoekstra,2011). However, community water systems that rely on ground waterexist to supplement surface water sources in order to adequatelyserve well-populated metropolitan areas and small rural areas.

Myindividual water footprint is approximately 2, 700m3.This figure greatly varies from units recorded in other areas.Hoekstra&amp Chapagain, (2008)holds that there are large differences between countries in relationto their average household water footprint. For instance, the UnitedStates’ average individual water footprint stands at 2842m3/yrper capita. This is comparatively varied in China, India, UnitedKingdom and Finland which record 1071, 1,089, 1,695 and 1733 m3/yrper capita respectively (Mekonnen &amp Hoekstra, 2011).

Wateris also used in non-local areas such as agricultural projects(irrigation) for growing the variety of food we consume at home(Hoekstra &amp Chapagain, 2008). In addition, water is an essentialingredient in the manufacture of consumer goods. Moreover, water isutilized in recreational facilities such as swimming pools, boating,fishing, among other outdoor activities.

Nonetheless,lowering the water amount consumed in basic tasks such as bathing,gardening and laundry, as well as avoiding leaving tap-water runningwhile washing utensils and brushing could help me reduce my averagewater footprint.


Hoekstra,A.Y. &amp Chapagain, A.K. (2008). Globalization of water: Sharingthe planet`s freshwater resources, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK.

Mekonnen,M.M. &amp Hoekstra, A.Y. (2011). National water footprint accounts:the green, blue and grey water footprint of production andconsumption, Value of Water Research Report Series No.50, UNESCO-IHE.