Source 1 Source 2

Deconstruction of Literature Matrix

Source 1

Source 2

Source 3

APA Reference

Kwok, L., &amp Yu, B. (2013). Spreading Social Media Messages on Facebook An Analysis of Restaurant Business-to-Consumer Communications.&nbspCornell Hospitality Quarterly,&nbsp54(1), 84-94.

Inversini, A., &amp Masiero, L. (2014). Selling rooms online: the use of social media and online travel agents.&nbspInternational Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management,&nbsp26(2), 272-292.

Fotis, J., Buhalis, D., &amp Rossides, N. (2012).&nbspSocial media use and impact during the holiday travel planning process&nbsp(pp. 13-24). Springer-Verlag.

Purpose &amp Significance (Theme)

The article aims at examining the types of messages that obtained the most comments and clicks of “Like” on Facebook. The study revolved around two research questions. First, there is the question on the social media messages that hospitality companies share with their consumers on Facebook. Secondly, there was the question regarding the types of social messages that Facebook users endorse and, therefore, propagate. The research was based on the premise that in instances where hospitality companies know the types of messages that Facebook users favor, the managers may be capable of communicating with the consumers in a more effective manner and possibly come up with better strategies for engaging the users.

The purpose of the study is to investigate the human and technological factors that pertain to the use of online travel agent and social media websites.

The study assesses the usage scope and levels of social media in the entire travel planning process. In addition, it seeks to assess the perceived magnitude of influence of social media on accommodation and destination choice, not to mention the levels of trust that travelers place on social media content as compared to other travel related information sources.

Research Question(s):

First, there is the question on the social media messages that hospitality companies share with their consumers on Facebook. Secondly, there was the question regarding the types of social messages that Facebook users endorse and, therefore, propagate.

First, the study was aimed at determining the importance of social media with regard to online sales. Secondly, it aims at determining the importance of OTA with regard to online sales.

First, there is the question on the extent and reason for using social media in the process of holiday travel planning. This inspires the hypothesis that social media is primarily used prior to trips for the purpose of information search. Second, there is the question on whether social media has any influence on holiday plans which breeds the hypothesis that the higher the perceived social media influence level on the choice of destination and accommodation, the higher the potential for changes to be made in the holiday plans. The last research question asks whether social media may be more trustworthy compared to traditional holiday related information sources.

Design and Population:

Study Design


This study adopted the criterion-based, mixed purpose sampling procedure which involved identification of 20 restaurant chains that have the highest sales volume and another 20 independent restaurants that have the highest sales volume, selection of 8 quick service restaurant chains that have more than a million Facebook fans alongside 3 casual dining restaurant chains that have the most Facebook fans from the top 20 restaurant chains. The last step involved the selection of two autonomous restaurants that have the highest number of Facebook fans. Eventually, the researchers identified ten chains and two autonomous facebook pages, with the sample representing a total annual sales volume of over $11 billion. Once the unique Facebook ID for the selected restaurants had been identified, the researchers developed a computer program that automatically retrieved Facebook messages that the restaurants initiated through the use of Facebook Query Language (FQL). Four data fields including message media type, message body, number of comments and number of “Likes” were retrieved. Eventually, 982 messages were retained for analysis.

The study was founded on a survey that was sent to numerous hotels within a Swiss touristic region. The survey or questionnaire sent to hoteliers had varied questions. First, there was a question regarding the distribution channels, i.e. destination-related and OTAs, with the hoteliers being asked to financial resources each requires. The second question asked the proportion of rooms sold related to OTAs available in the market including Expedia, HRS and Hoteliers were also asked to outline the reasons predisposing the choice of particular distribution channels in line with the 5-point Likert scale. Other questions asked the importance of OTAs, Social media websites and UGC in the sale of online allotment, with hoteliers being asked about online channels management especially the utilization of hotel-owned web-booking engines and channel managers. Lastly, there was the question on the human resources that are dedicated to website management and online sales management. As much as the authors sent questionnaires to 511 hotels, only 110 of them were returned, which is a 21.5% response rate. Of these, 97 were deemed usable for analysis.

This study involved the sending of an online questionnaire survey to a random subset of commercial online research panel. A total of 900 panelists received an email invitation that had a link to the online questionnaire, of whom 368 completed the questionnaire, thereby attaining a response rate of 41%. The sample in the study incorporated 346 internet users that lived in 12 FSU republics that had had at least a single holiday trip in the last one year before the study.




Statistical Analysis

Limitations &amp Assumptions

In the analysis, a 4-step procedure was used in answering the research questions. First, content-based message popularity prediction model was used in identifying the indicative keywords related to “more popular” and “less popular” messages with regard to the number of “likes. The four Facebook message types’ popularity was compared in line with the number of “Likes” and comments. The third step involved coding every message under two categories on the basis of the indicative keywords. The groups are sales and marketing messages vs. conversational messages. Lastly, the researchers tested whether there existed any cross-effect pertaining t the four types of media and two types of messages on the basis of the number of comments and likes.

In the data analysis, the empirical analysis primarily involved specifying two ordered logit models that explored the importance of social media, as well as online travel agent with regard to online sales/. With regard to model specification, the methodology that was applied followed backward selection, in which case only significant variables were appearing on the final model. It has been noted that the model estimation pertaining to importance is carried out on full data set, while the model pertaining to the social media’s importance is subject to a subset of 92 observations as a result of a total of five missing varied pertaining to two of the independent variables that were used in the study.

Three subsets of multiple response questions were used in assessing the use of social media prior to, in the course of, and following the holiday trip. The perceived social media level of influence on accommodation and destination chose was measured using a seven-point scale which ranged from Not Influential at All (1) to “very influential” (7). Further, the perceived level of trust with regard to holiday travel related information sources was assessed on a 7-point Likert Scale that ranged from “Strongly Disagree (1) to “strongly Agree” (7). Also incorporated in the questionnaire were measures that offered social-demographic traits, as well as travel tendencies.


Key Findings:

Hypothesis Supported

A total of 982 messages had been identified, with 976 of them being identified as having valid type of media. With regard to content-based message popularity prediction, it was determined that the key words that are indicative of the “more popular” messages describe menu items, the commitment of the company to commitments and special days or occasions, as well as actions or questions. Keywords that are indicative of “less popular” messages outline the marketing campaigns and promotions. With regard to message type analysis, it is noted that companies communicate with their fans in two ways. First, they may inform the users about a marketing or sales event, with messages incorporating less popular phrases of keywords like “a chance to…”, “vote for…and win”, or “chance to win”. The second technique involved posting updates that had no direct association with direct sales or marketing efforts but incorporates some indicative keywords incorporated under “more popular” messages.

The results of the two models underline the fact that there exists a positive and significant relationship between’s importance and social media’s importance as far as online sales are concerned. This is indicative of a direct relationship between OTAs’ importance and social media importance that hoteliers perceive with regard to online sales. Similarly, a positive relationship was observed between social media’s importance and the importance related to the functionality pertaining to booking technology and online platform marketing and resources’ effectiveness. Further, the results indicate that the incorporation of integrated booking engine within hotel websites would enhance the potential for rating social media as a crucial online sales tool. On the same note, the researchers found that the hoteliers perceive the two online technologies differently. Social media seems to be associated with hotel capacity, while the online platform is demand driven.

It was determined that social media is deemed as more trustworthy than the conventional sources of holiday related travel information. In addition, it was determined that the likelihood for change of holiday plans increases with increase in the influence of social media on destination choice. Similarly, there is an increase in the likelihood for changes in holiday plans as a result of an increase in the influence of social media on accommodation choice. Lastly, while there may be variations in the usage of social media in the varied demographics, it is noted that social media was used in confirming the appropriateness of a destination. In the course of the holiday, however, they would use the social media in staying connected to friends and searching holiday related information or even posing reviews on the experience.


Are the conclusions valid based on the data and analysis?

It was determined that the traditional marketing may not be effective on social media. Indeed, it was noted that conversational messages may be more popular in comparison to sales and marketing messages.

In media type analysis, it was determined that photo messages and status messages obtained more likes compared to link and video messages, while status messages obtained more comments compared to the other types of messages.

One of the major conclusions is that the social media and OTAs’ interplay is a reflection of the tension between revenue and visibility, resulting in the likelihood of the creation of new distribution strategies. This means that an active presence on social media and OTA portals are crucial for the success of modern hoteliers particularly with regard to engaging with current and prospective clients. Further, the hoteliers interest in the utilization of social media is influenced by the implementation of hotel-owned software to manage online distribution and sell. Indeed, booking engines owned by hotels enhanced the potential for rating social media as a crucial tool for online sales. Lastly, the fundamental nature of human factor alongside the associated competencies necessary is important for the operation of the hospitality industry on social media.

Social media is predominatly used in the current times to share experiences pertaining to holidays. There exists a strong correlation between the perceived social media influence level and modifications made on the holiday plans before final decisions are made. User-generated content is deemed as more trustworthy compared to conventional sources of information.

Topics for Further Research

Future research may examine other social media sites and incorporate other message types. In addition, it may use sentiment analysis technique for analysis of comments’ content.

It is imperative that the same research is carried out in different touristic and geographical contexts so as to allow for more generalisability.

Further research should examine the claim that the impact that social media has on holiday travel related planning would differ among tourism source markets, with the differences being attributed to cultural variations.