QUESTION1). What is the difference between individualism and selfishness?
Individualism is the act whereby an individual is more concerned andfocused on advancing his or her individual own interests and hasslesthe right to serve his or her personal interest without consideringthe interests of the society. Individualism is a situation where anindividual feels rather unstable while interacting with others. Theperson becomes a loner, this develops because of not always beingunderstood by others, and it frustrates the individual thus takingthe option of living an entirely private life.
On the other hand, the selfishness is the act or practice of placingoneself interests high above the welfare and interests of others. Aselfish person cannot help anyone at any given instance as he focuseson his selfish gain. In most cases, selfishness develops because ofemotional immaturity due to incomplete development of individuality.A selfish person develops the need to receive more and is incapableof giving. He uses people to retrieve or rather achieve his or herdesires and needs yet he or she does not reciprocate the same act.(Marsh, 2014)
QUESTION2). What is the relation between Communists and the proletariat?
The instant intention of communist is the creation of a proletariatto a group, conquest bourgeois supremacy and subjugation of theradical authority by proletariat. According to Marx, the communistsare always criticized for craving to eliminatethe aspect of acquiringprivate property after an individual has worked and rewarded inaccordance to the work done. The property that is under the controlof the bourgeoisie epitomizes a societalsupremacy. Therefore shiftingthe property into jointownership does not eliminate the property as anecessity but merely changes its communalpersonality, byremovingthegrouppersonality.
The target of the communism defies the freedom of the bourgeois, andthus denouncing the philosophy of the communist by thebourgeois.Those in authority support the ideas for self-benefit andgain. The bourgeois glorify property rights because they are the onesin society with property.
QUESTION3). What does Marx mean when he states `What is animal becomes humanand what is human becomes animal`? In addition, what does he meanwhen he says `the eye has become a human eye?`
When Marxclaims that man becomes human and human becomes animal, he refers toa situation or rather a state in which the activities andundertakings that man shares with animals tend to appear or look morehuman as compared to the activities and undertakings that mark anddistinguish him as a man. Marx continues to claim that because of thecreative and productive nature, man is in a situation where he doesnot feel himself or herself to be full of life in any but his or herfunctioning as an animal that include procreating, eating, drinking,dressing up and dwelling and in his human functions. He or she seeshimself as an animal.
Undoubtedly,drinking, eating and procreating are unpretentious roles of a human,thoughthe concept that differentiates them from the scope theactivities of other human beings and undertakings and changes them toexclusive and eventually culminates to inhibit character of ananimal.
Theeye has become the human eye
According toMarx, the perfection of property that is private is therefore, thecomprehensive liberation of attributes and senses of human beings. Hegoes on to say that this emancipation specifically subjectivity andobjectivity of intellects and qualities human beings. The eye hasbecome a human eye, the social human object is moving from one man toanother. The intellects have thusdevelopedunswervingly in theirexercisethen again they re-count themselves to the itembecause of thesame item. However, the item itself is an independentsocial relationto itself and vice versa.
QUESTION5). What does Nietzsche have against the â€˜warm sympatheticheart €™?
According toNietzsche, warm and sympathetic hearts yearn the removal of that wildand aggressive character. The warmest hearts wish and desire to bepassionate of all, whereas every time, its passion derived its fire,its warmth, its existence specifically from that wild and aggressivecharacter. The warmest heart thus desires and wishes the removal ofits foundation, the destruction of itself. It desires and wishesthings that are unreasoned and not intelligent. He continues to saythat, the highest intelligence and the warmest heart cannot existtogether in one person. Thewise man must be in conflict with the ex­travagant wishes ofinane kindness because he cares about the existence of his type, andthe ultimatecreation of the highest intellect.
However, hewill not further the formation of the perfect state if there is roomfor feeble indi­viduals. Nietzschegives an example of Christ who was considered to have had the warmestheart. He says that Christ made man imprudentand stupid in that heplaced himself on the side of the intellectually deficient anddecelerated the production of the highest, wisest and the greatestintellect. On the contrary, Christ was a man of perfect wisdom. Thestate is a wise arrangement for the protection of one individualagainst the other. If at all its ennobling is hyperbolic, theindividual will be weakened by it. Consequently, the primary andcritical purpose of the state will be thwarted.
Marsh,I. (2014). Theoryand Practice in Sociology.Hoboken: Taylor and Francis.