Reporting a Hierarchical Multiple Regression Abstract

REPORTING A HIERARCHICAL MULTIPLE REGRESSION 1

Reportinga Hierarchical Multiple Regression

Abstract

TheObjective of this report was to determine and explain the farreaching effects of locus of control, depression, anxiety in academicachievement in school. Basically, the research was done at a localschool using a set of a hundred students that were presented withquestionnaires. The questions were designed in a way that would bringout the real emotions of the respondents, in relation to theiracademic achievements and failure. That is, how these predictablevariables affect their school life? It was a confirmed reality thatthe pre-determined predictor variables had a lot of sense indetermining whether a student would pass his/her exams and adapt tothis achievement status which was the criterion for my researchstudies. This meant that, a good healthy mind, free of stress andnegative energies will undoubtedly result to successful studies.

The study was doneto reveal the cause of academic failure as well as academicachievement among students with different views of their lives.

The results weresignificant in that, one is able to draw the correct conclusions fromthe given descriptive statistics. The statistics were more soimportant in deriving a theoretical support that laid a basis to thehypotheses.

Inthe research, remarkable results were obtained. The statisticsobtained are true and conforming to the hypotheses. The Mean andStandard Deviation values reflected what is valid to the hypotheses.It was found out that, a combination of these predictable variableshad far-reaching effects in the students’ performance. That is,negative attitude was the main cause of academic failure, and thatnegative attitude results from depression, anxiety and a poor Locusof Control. Hence, controlling these negative energies in a morepositive way and approach, one will certainly enjoy academic success.

If the study was tobe repeated, the extra recommendations to this research would be:

  • Pre-select both males and females as independent samples and compare their results on a gender basis as well, and determine how gender may play a factor role in academic achievement.

  • Select a specific sample that would be used for the pilot study in a particular advanced assessment. The specific sample would be taught on how to control such variables, and their achievements tested after a certain period to see any personal improvement or failure.

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Reporting a Hierarchical MultipleRegression

Introduction

The scope of thisstudy covers college demography, aged between 17-22 years. It setsout to investigate the psychological factors affecting the academiclife of such students. In many years, underachievement in studies oreven life has been attributed to an unstable mind. Therefore, thischallenge is a major concern among educators and scholars. Accordingto various research proposals, evidence has is it that, motivation,values, work and study ethics of students have led to a considerableimprovement in their school life and life in general (Beatrice&amp J.A, 1995). In 1992, Martin Fordsuggested that the Motivational System Theory holds a prime supportachievement. This was a premise that was also seconded by Goleman(1995). Emotional intelligence plays an integral part towards theultimate success of any individual so is the spiritual intelligenceand self-realization of anyone. The perpetual failure of students toreach their potential maximum academic capabilities is a recurringdilemma for educators (Buck &amp A.T, 1967). Research has a proventhat negative energy is a major trend in students’underachievement, and that several factors contribute to this commonphenomenon. Students have various drawbacks that prevent them fromachieving. Such factors may include:

  • No interest in learning

  • Lack of internal or external motivation to achieve.

  • School or personal Environment

Character, moraleducation and social development are influential strategies towardspositive energy and success. High levels of accomplishment are onlyattained under perfectionism a very positive factor foradjustment, achievement and satisfaction (Lounsbury, 2009). Anxietyin academics situations may diminish future performanceanticipations, foster negative mood states and perhaps inhibitsuccess in their studies. Depression affects the way a student thinksand feels about his/her life. Depression will most likely lead topoor performance and deviation from studies. Depressed students showa lack of interest in their endeavors. Locus of control is acognitive energy that explains the extent to which an individualviews the events affecting his/her life and how they influencehis/her overall well-being. So, if students can control the outcomeof their academic life, then they are answerable to their levels ofsuccess and failure as well.

In multipleregression, the dependent variable which is also called the criterionvariable, in this case- academic achievement, is considered tobe in a linear relationship with the independent variable that is thepredictor variables ( locus of control, anxiety anddepression). These predictor variables are the fundamental units indetermining academic achievement. In these research studies, theassumption was that learning depends on these predictor variables.Therefore, it was a compelling urge to establish if this was a trueand valid judgement (Buck &amp A.T, 1967).

“Thegreatest discovery of any generation is that human beings can altertheir lives by altering their attitudes of mind(goodreads.com/quotes).” Predictors of academic achievement and thepsychological challenges in campus students is a significant researchquestion. Generally, the successful completion of studies is anoteworthy confirmation of educational prowess and its application inthe later life (Beatrice &amp J.A, 1995).

Scientifically, thisstudy supports past research indicating the importance of studentbelief system as a predictor of student mental health (Emme, 1942).Also, it provides further evidence to the importance of Locus ofcontrol for effective coping behavior in the case of negative lifeevents (i.e., low grades, financial difficulties, health problems).

Findings of thisstudy, specifically the high rate of depressive symptoms amongcollege students, hold implications for depressive symptomsinterventions, such as expanding psycho-education courses to includestrategies for enhancing and maintaining a sense of personal controland self-actualization (Kim et al., 2010).

LOC(Locus of Control) may reflect a student`s inherent response tocentral philosophical and scientific questions about the nature ofhuman life and experiential reality (globaljournals.com, 1991). Thus,LOC bargains a way between academic and student development.

This area was moreimportant because it was an interesting topic, and the research wasdone to establish a helpful yet insightful paper that would otherwisehelp those who are in dire need for individual achievements andrealization (Lefcourt et al., 1991).

Hypotheses

“Depression, senseof anxiety and locus of control are examples of determinant variablesin academic performance and achievement.”

“Studentsperforming poorly are most likely to be affected by anxiety,depression or negative locus of control.”

“Students whoperform excellently tend to avoid negative energies in their lives,and hence are more likely to do better”

Method

Relevant demographicset was utilized, that is, university students. It was composed ofboth sexes, male and female, aged between 17-22 years.

Materials

Questionnaires thathad only relevant questions for the study were used in a way that didnot manipulate or infringe the students’ private life.

Experiment Design

This study was anexperimental correlational quantitative research design used toanalyze the relationship between the three predictable variables ofinterest, and one criterion variable- academic achievement.

With thequestionnaires ready prepared, a group of 10 other assisting studentshelped in the collection of the significant data from the hundredstudents. These were random students at specific sections of thecampus. For instance, the good sources for obtaining accurate resultswere the university’s library and the campus’ students’entertainment centre- where one is likely to find groups of “idlestudents” just relaxed with no good plan for the day (eithersmoking or drinking alcohol just to pass time).

Procedure

After identifyingthe appropriate spots for collecting the useful data, the mentionedgroups set foot so that they could achieve the objective so easily.Before any data collection, a briefing session was conducted tofamiliarize the respondents with all the requirements. Respondentswere supposed to answer all the question is the questionnaires. Eachof the hundred respondents had his/her questionnaire. After this, allthe hundred questionnaires were collected together for analysis andinterpolation of the results. Finally, the debriefing session was amajor step in thanking the respondents and updating my team on thenext mission, which was to group the data. The results were used tocalculate the mean and standard deviations of the given variables.

Results

Out of a hundredparticipating students (100), the following data was obtained.

Participant Number

Locus of Control

Anxiety &amp Depression (HADS)

Student Achievement Scale (SAS)

1

65

A= 8

D= 2

8

2

102

A= 14

D= 8

7

3

77

A= 12

D= 7

7

4

107

A= 5

D= 1

9

5

92

A= 5

D= 1

10

6

73

A= 6

D= 1

8

7

40

A= 5

D= 2

8

8

55

A= 3

D= 3

7

9

49

A= 2

D= 4

7

10

101

A= 10

D= 10

7

11

36

A= 6

D= 3

9

12

86

A= 5

D= 5

7

13

50

A= 1

D= 1

8

14

74

A= 2

D= 0

7

15

61

A= 7

D= 3

8

16

48

A= 3

D= 3

8

17

88

A= 7

D= 3

7

18

90

A= 6

D= 4

6

19

33

A= 3

D= 0

9

20

68

A= 8

D= 3

8

21

60

A= 6

D= 4

8

22

99

A= 12

D= 8

6

23

78

A= 10

D= 5

9

24

101

A= 5

D= 2

6

25

72

A= 7

D= 3

10

26

51

A= 8

D= 4

6

27

45

A= 8

D= 3

7

28

60

A= 4

D= 5

8

29

59

A= 3

D= 1

6

30

89

A= 12

D= 10

9

31

48

A= 10

D= 4

6

32

76

A= 8

D= 2

9

33

60

A= 5

D= 5

5

34

84

A= 8

D= 0

7

35

71

A= 9

D= 4

8

36

58

A= 4

D= 2

8

37

102

A= 10

D= 4

9

38

97

A= 6

D= 4

7

39

73

A= 3

D= 1

9

40

82

A= 8

D= 4

9

41

45

A= 7

D= 0

6

42

65

A= 12

D= 6

9

43

89

A= 9

D= 5

8

44

105

A= 8

D= 0

6

45

77

A= 5

D= 4

8

46

48

A= 7

D= 0

7

47

54

A= 8

D= 5

9

48

36

A= 5

D= 2

6

49

42

A= 7

D= 5

8

50

96

A= 10

D= 8

6

51

45

A= 7

D= 2

6

52

78

A= 9

D= 6

9

53

49

A= 8

D= 0

8

54

75

A= 7

D= 3

7

55

55

A= 9

D= 5

8

56

52

A= 7

D= 4

6

57

74

A= 9

D= 6

8

58

88

A= 8

D= 5

8

59

48

A= 4

D= 1

7

60

79

A= 9

D= 5

7

61

55

A= 10

D= 2

9

62

68

A= 9

D= 3

6

63

79

A= 8

D= 4

9

64

99

A= 6

D= 0

8

65

98

A= 8

D= 5

10

66

88

A= 7

D= 4

9

67

49

A= 6

D= 0

7

68

96

A= 9

D= 5

8

69

105

A= 10

D= 9

8

70

68

A= 8

D= 3

8

71

85

A= 6

D= 4

8

72

46

A= 9

D= 0

8

73

99

A= 7

D= 6

6

74

77

A= 4

D= 1

5

75

88

A= 8

D= 4

9

76

63

A= 8

D= 2

5

77

102

A= 9

D= 0

8

78

68

A= 4

D= 8

7

79

42

A= 9

D= 8

9

80

89

A= 5

D= 6

5

81

99

A= 5

D= 3

6

82

103

A= 10

D= 5

7

83

70

A= 9

D= 5

7

84

68

A= 8

D= 9

4

85

87

A= 4

D= 3

5

86

63

A= 9

D= 5

7

87

97

A= 9

D= 5

8

88

45

A= 8

D= 0

8

89

51

A= 6

D= 5

7

90

100

A= 12

D= 8

9

91

52

A= 7

D= 4

8

92

75

A= 7

D= 3

8

93

68

A= 9

D= 6

9

94

89

A= 6

D= 2

8

95

72

A= 4

D= 2

5

96

54

A= 6

D= 0

7

97

82

A= 8

D= 4

6

98

59

A= 8

D= 0

7

99

98

A= 9

D= 5

9

100

73

A= 5

D= 0

6

Table 1-Resultsscore

With the results above, a hierarchical multiple regression was realised as shown in the descriptive table below.

DESCRIPTIVES VARIABLES=locus –anxiety- depression

/STATISTICS=MEAN STDDEV MIN MAX.

Descriptive

[DataSet0]

Descriptive Statistics

N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

locus of control

100

33.00

107.00

72.2900

20.06771

anxiety

100

1.00

14.00

7.1800

2.48381

Depression

100

.00

10.00

3.5900

2.50694

Valid N (list-wise)

100

Table 2- Hierarchical MultipleRegression Report

Inferentialstatistics

  • The locus of control has a mean of 72.2900 and a standard deviation of 20.06771

  • Anxiety of the respondents equally has a mean of 7.1800 and a standard deviation of 2.48381

  • Depression has a mean of 3.5900 and standard deviation of 2.50694

  • The information is derived from a sample of 100 respondents (participants) and at 99% confidence limit.

Data obtained in this study were analyzed through sequential(hierarchical) regression process. This allowed the gaining of anunderstanding of the relationship between the variables and thecontributions each might supply to the student achievement.

Discussion

A stepwise multipleregression procedure was computed to determine the contributions ofeach dependent variable.

In the regression,the Locus of Control had a mean of 72.90, this means that out of themaximum score 120, the distribution of LOC was abundant among allstudents, which compels a conclusion that students had the ultimatecontrol of their lives and that a decision making process was animportant aspect of their prosperity in their studies. The standarddeviation measured how concentrated the data set are round the mean.Hence, the more they are concentrated, the smaller the deviation. LOChas a standard deviation of 20.06 this means that there was amoderate set of students who likely had to point out that LOC had animpact on their academic achievement. The standard deviation is basedon the distance from the mean. Hence, a large range of SD valueindicates a moderate analysis. This is a significant analysis, sincevarious data were obtained, ranging from a score of 33-107, whichmeant that there was a larger difference of points that resulted tothe moderate mean and SD.

Out of a maximumscore of 14, and a mean of 7.18 suggests that failure in exams may bedue to anxiety. The Standard Deviation was 2.48, meaning that the setof data were evenly distributed around the mean, and that the SD hada smaller difference from the mean. A smaller value differencebetween the mean and the SD means that a significant number ofstudents had anxiety to blame for their academic performance. Thescores were fairly distributed, since different individuals haddifferent views for instance, the Minimum score in Anxiety test was1.0 while the Maximum score is 14.0. A bigger score such as 10-14meant that such students were experiencing a moment of an unpleasantstate of inner turmoil that tormented their spirit for realising apositive energy and thus attaining success was almost impossible.Most likely, anxiety will directly result to uneasiness and lack ofconcentration in school work. These kinds of students cannot focus onwhat is good to their life and the process may lead on to otherdetrimental stages, perhaps dropping out of school. Anxiety isconfirmed to be a multifaceted construct having differentialrelationships with performance (Kim, 2010). All research concerninganxiety has to consider this fact. This, however, does not implycalculation of all possible effects or correlations at all times, buton the contrary, consideration of the differential effects orvalidities connected with the special facets of the constructs whichresearch has brought about in the course of time. For example,predicting academic performance from anxiety could be improved ifanxiety was measured only in terms of test anxiety and test anxietyin terms of worry (Emme, 1942).

Depression isanother major factor that plays a detrimental factor towards the lifeof students. It is twinned to the locus of control, whereby thedepressed individuals have difficulties in controlling their lives,and thus may end up making uninformed decisions that are unnecessary(Buck &amp A.T, 1967). The analysis of depression is almost similarto that of the other three variables.

In the sense of alinear combination among the three predictable variables, itis visibly clear that these variables affect the academic achievementof the students under research. This was measured in a studentachievement scale that illustrates score values with a mean of 7.0.So, this was a fair contribution and distribution of the threevariables.

In the context ofprevious research and theory, these predictor variables were seen asthe core factors that can determine if one can realize success ornot. It is within one’s realm to choose what he/she wants. Astudent’s ability to learn has implications for school success aswell. A student’s ability to learn has implications for schoolsuccess as well. In a study conducted among urban minority students,these students were more likely to be affected by attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and less likely to receiveappropriate treatments, which greatly affects cognitive and sensoryperceptions. This in turn impacts attendance, school connections,retention rates and ultimately academic success. This researchrecommends addressing existing disparities should be a priority foreducators committed to turning underachievement around. A studentcannot find personal meaning or understand their place in the worldif he or she is not allowed to reflect on and practice good behaviorsso that they can be inserted into their conduct and become relevantin their lives (Buck &amp A.T, 1967).

The major weaknessesfor this study were:

  • Obtaining the relevant and realistic information required.

  • Some of the audiences were unresponsive.

  • Analyzing the results.

The weaknesses can be removed by:

  • Better briefing and debriefing of respondents.

  • Accurately analyzing the results.

Further studies inthis area should try to include other extra predictor variables suchas socio-demography components likes sexes, race, type of school(private or public) and physical disabilities so that more andaccurate information can be drawn.

Conclusion

Theresults proved the hypotheses initially highlighted. Positive energyis so vital in one’s success (Beatrice&amp J.A, 1995).

One of the pivotalpoints of success is that achievement occurs when a person ismotivated, has the physical and mental capabilities to succeed, butmost of it all is embedded in a supportive and responsiveenvironment. Schools are a mirror image of society, and if schoolsare to become better, then society must get better as well. Forstudents’ achievement to improve, the social structures mustimprove as well (Beatrice&amp J.A, 1995).

Reference

Beck, A. T. (1967).Depression: clinical, experimental, and theoretical aspects.New

York:Hoeber Medical Division, Harper &amp Row.

Beatrice,J.A. (1995).&nbspLearningto Study through Critical Thinking.&nbspCh.1: ‘College Learning’. Chicago: Irwin, pp. 3–25.

E.Kim, F. B. Newton, R. G. Downey, and S. L. Benton. (2010) “Personalfactors impacting college student success. Constructing CollegeLearning Effectiveness Inventory (CLEI),”&nbspCollegeStudent Journal, vol. 44, no. 1, pp.112–125.

E.E. Emme, (1942). “Predicting college success,”&nbspJournalof Higher Education. Vol 13. pp.263–267.

J.W. Lounsbury, L. A. Fisher, J. J. Levy, and D. P. Welsh. (2009) “Aninvestigation of character strengths in relation to the academicsuccess of college students,”&nbspIndividualDifferences Research, Vol7. No. 1. pp. 52–69.

Lefcourt,H. M. (1991). Locus of control.

Retrieved May, 2105,fromhttp://www.goodreads.com/quotes/126931-the-greatest-discovery-of-any-generation-is-that-human-beings

Retrieved May, 2105,fromhttp://theglobaljournals.com/paripex/file.php?val=February_2014_1392717691_0c336_25.pdf

Appendix

Briefing was donebefore the actual research just to make sure our respondents werefully prepared for the questions that touched their lives in one wayor another. Questions pertaining to the study were asked and alsoanswered in the best way possible.

Consent was obtainedfrom the university authorities and therefore all the necessarypre-requisites for conducting the study were present.

Debriefing was acommunication mechanism just to ensure that the subjects were treatedwell and that their confidential details would be used for theresearch analysis only.

A study conductedby Arthur and Hayward (1997) in which they examined the relationshipsbetween perfectionism, standards for academic achievement, andemotional distress. Perfectionistic tendencies were associated withstudents‟ actual performance in a post-secondary program. Inparticular, higher levels of depression and socially were associatedwith lower grade point average (GPA).

One possibleinterpretation of the relatively low to moderate predictors ofacademic performance may be concerned with extraneous factors notaddressed in this study. Examples include students’ attitudestowards school, students’ adjustment to school environment, andteachers’ perceptions of students’ and teachers’ experiences.

According to theresearchers, parents with higher-socio-economic status tend to bemore involved in the school activities of the children than theparents with lower socio-economic status.

When faced withthese events, internals tend to adopt a problem-solving strategywhile the externals tend to react emotionally, for example by beingsad or angry (Sarason &amp Sarason, 1989, p. 441).

However, bothscientifically and educationally this research fits well with thecurrent emphasis on improving the positive elements of collegesproactively rather than retroactively trying to “fix” problemsthat emerge. It is important that this “reverse” (positive,proactive) view becomes part of the educational and publicunderstanding of student success.

More than that, weneed to Europe’s Journal of Psychology94 distinguish theimportant components of well-being, such as the cognitive andaffective components, as they relate to the educational enterprise.This mental health disorder in this population can be effectivelytreated with evidence based psychosocial and pharmacologicalapproaches. Specifically, Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) addressesthese social cognitive processes in the context of a therapeuticrelationship. Prior studies have shown that cognitive behaviortherapy is effective in the treatment of adolescent and young adultdepression. Accordingly, establishing a skills buildingpsycho-educational course, with a strong emphasis on behavioralskills training, in the campuses, will be effective in the treatmentof college student depression (Lewinsohn, Clarke, Hops, &ampAndrews, 1990 Reinecke, Ryan, &amp DuBois, 1998).

Beck and Weishaar(1989) believe that in order to treat depression, clients need totreat their maladaptive interpretations and conclusions as testablehypotheses. The role of the therapist in a cognitive-behavioralintervention is to help the clients examine alternativeinterpretations and to produce contradictory evidence that supportmore adaptive patterns. According to the cognitive theory ofdepression proposed by Beck &quotthe behavioral consequences ofpsychopathology will depend on the content of cognitive structuring&quot(Beck &amp Weishaar, 1989, p. 293). This relationship betweentherapist and client can be called collaborative empiricism becauseit involves a collaborative enterprise between therapist and clientsin order to produce therapeutic change. We may also suggest thatinvolvement of students in extracurricular activities, whether sportsor community service may help those at risk for depression(Hellandsjbّu,Watten, Foxcroft, Ingebrigtsen, &amp Relling, 2002).