Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence And Happiness In Adolescence And Young Adulthood A Systemic Literature Review

RelationshipBetween Emotional Intelligence And Happiness In Adolescence And YoungAdulthood: A Systemic Literature Review



Ithas been an instructive and exciting learning duration at (insertyour university name),and I feel much privileged to have had this noble chance to conductthis study as a exhibition of gained knowledge.

I acknowledgealmighty God for the gift of life as well as good health. I am alsodelighted to acknowledge my parent who offered me an opportunity andsupporting me financially. Special gratitude goes to my supervisor(entersupervisor’s names……….)who by patience, guidance, encouragement and understanding made thisproject to be successful.

Finally,yet importantly, I express my deep gratefulness to the lasting memoryof my loving family as well friends who are a constant source ofmotivation and for their never ending support and encouragementduring this project.

Andmay God bless all those who helped me conduct this research work butare not mentioned herein above.




Emotional Intelligence Defined 6

Origin of emotional intelligence 8

Psychosocial Development of Adolescents 9

Emotional Intelligence in Adolescents 12

Individuals assume different capabilities and capacities 14

The role of learning institutions in adolescence and psychological happiness 15

Evidence suggesting that happiness produces energy, vitality and dynamic life 16




Method 18

Procedure 18

Description of instruments used to measure ei and happiness 19

Demographic Data Sheet 19

Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire 20

Children’s Anxiety and Depression Scale 20

Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale 20

Emotional Intelligence Scale 21

Oxford happiness scale: 21


Descriptive Statistics 22


Emotional Intelligence with Satisfaction with Life and Psychological happiness 26

Family role in the relationship between emotional intelligence and happiness of adolescents 28


Emotional intelligence and Happiness in athletes 31

Application to Counseling and Education 34



References 39


Thisstudy was carried out to investigate the relationship betweenemotional intelligence and happiness in adolescence and youngadulthood. 182 young adults, both female and male from 12-18 yearsold with a mean age of 15.7 and Standard Deviation (SD) of 1.82 wereincluded in this study. The sample was arrived by the use of themixed method sampling technique.

TraitEmotional Intelligence questionnaire (TEIQue-SF) Petrides &ampFurnhm, 2003), Children’s Anxiety and Depression scales (Chorpita,1998) and Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965) wereadministered. Pearson Product Moment of the coefficient ofcorrelation was used in order to establish the relationship betweenemotional intelligence and happiness among adolescents. The resultsshowed that Emotional intelligence is positively related to happinessin adolescent.

Theroles of parents in the relationship between emotional development ofan adolescence has well been expounded in addition to the applicationof emotional intelligence concept on sports and peer counseling andeducation.

Keywords:Adolescents, happiness, emotional intelligence, self-esteem,depression, self control

INTRODUCTIONEmotionalIntelligence Defined

Trinidad,Unger, Chou, and Johnson, (2005) defined the emotional intelligenceas the ability to perceive, express and appraise emotions correctly,it includes an ability to generate feelings in concept of emotionalintelligence, understanding of emotional knowledge and regulation ofemotions.

Theirbelief that emotional conflicts for instance, manifestation ofbehaviors is judged to be accurate or inaccurate by emotionalintelligence (Trinidad et al., 2005). Research on emotional andintelligence and adolescence is still limited, despite the fact thatthere is positive relationship between scores of emotionalintelligence assessment and individual’s perception, ability tocope with stress and social interaction (Baron, 2006 Mayer &ampSalovey, 1997).

Adolescentswho are emotionally intelligent are those who are able to graspemotional techniques and to cope themselves whenever they are facedwith pressure in life transitions. (Finn, 1993 Goleman, 1995 ).These life transitions include improving in grades and moving frommiddle school to high school transitions that are not common inadolescence with disabilities (Richardson, 2002).

Alot has been said concerning the inability of adolescence to adjustto stressful situations and possible alienations that they are faced(Sinclair, et al, 1998). Research shows that a lot of adolescentstudents are dropping out of alcohol as a result of the feeling ofhigh sense of disengagement in society (National High School Center,2007). Normally, students express this disengagement throughabsenteeism, disciplinary cases and low grades. (Sinclair, et al.,1998). Students, who fail in interpreting the expectations of otherstudents and those with difficulties interpersonal skills, usuallyabandon high school without having to graduate. Nearly a third ofstudents with poor learning abilities and approximately half ofadolescence with emotional problems drop out of high school (Wagneret al. (1991).

Emotionalintelligence is crucial in predicting the academic success ofstudents (Lam &amp Kirby, 2002). The dimensions of emotionalintelligence such as adaptability, stress management andinterpersonal ability can predict the academic success of students.Research also indicates that students faced with emotionaldisturbance or learning disability experience considerable academicchallenges than normal students, leading to impediment in academicsuccess (Wagner&amp Cameto, 2004).

Researchalso notes that with the increase in emotional intelligence, theconcern of students decrease. In this case, the increase in concernof students correlates with the least emotional intelligence score,and high emotional intelligence scores leads to trauma to male andfemale adolescents. Furthermore, females are found to exhibit greaterlevels of emotional intelligence and are able to cope up with changesin academics in middle schools than males (Richardson, 2002). Research conducted again with males in middle school related highemotional intelligence score of students from teachers with selfreport emotional intelligence scores by use of the Juvenile EmotionalManagement Scale (JEMS) McLin, 2003). This research noted that thereis a remarkable difference between students rating themselves or by ateacher and those rated as high, with a positive relationship betweenteachers reported and self-reported emotional scores (McLin, 2003)

Originof emotional intelligence

Inemotional literature, emotional intelligence is a prominent aspectfor different researchers. Ideas of social intelligence (Thorndike,1920) and multiple intelligence theory

(Gardner’s,1983) took into consideration the origin of the whole concept ofemotional intelligence. From Salovey and Mayer (1990) emotionalintelligence is a subsidiary of social intelligence ability tounderstand and monitor one’s emotions. The mixed model ofintelligence of Goleman, 1995, depicts that optimism, assertivenessempathy and delay of gratification are the main concepts of emotionalintelligence (Goleman, 1995).

Happinessis an umbrella term when emotional intelligence is correlated withlife constructs such as life satisfaction. Various researchers usedifferent terms and aspects to describe the phenomena of happinessfor example, terms of mentality, self-esteem, mood, quality of life,self-concept and subjective well-being (Rosenber, 1965 Diener et al,1985). Campbell (1976) explained it as a person’s current affairs.The main components of happiness are self-actualization, anxiety,self-esteem, stress and depression. A happy person or a good mentalhealth is greatly considered to master abilities to cope with lifechallenges. Researchers have claimed that emotional intelligence isresulted from notable personal aspects. Mood and self-esteem are thekey significant concepts and core of emotional happiness of a person(Salovey et al, 1995 Ekman et al, 1994 Thayer, 1996).

Self-esteemis an individual attitude regarding to his or her self. (James,1890). Individuals with high self-esteem perceive themselvespositively they feel better than those who are characterized by poorself-esteem. A person’s self-evaluation is founded on theirperceptions about the opinion of others and one`s self.

(Male&amp Horowitz, 1995) and Brown &amp Dutton (1995) wrote thatdifferent people have got different means of interpreting theirsuccess and failure. Persons with high self-esteem think rationallyand positively while those with low esteem over generalize theirfailures perceiving their traits as very rare, while the persons withhigh self esteem perceive that their traits are more superior (Dittoet al, 1993).

Positiveemotional intelligence is a good predictor of psychologicaladjustment and happiness, on the other hand, low emotionalintelligence is related to unhappiness and distracting behavior.(Petrides &amp Furnham, 2000).

Severalresearch results on emotional intelligence claim a considerablerelationship between emotional intelligence and happiness of childrenand adolescents. Increase in emotional intelligence paves way to apositive quality of life, whereas a decrease in emotionalintelligence leads to psychopathology or unhappiness in students(Emotional Intelligence, 1998).

PsychosocialDevelopment of Adolescents

Adolescenceis a growth period that is characterized by lots of challenges,especially the current teenagers. Early childhood developmenttheorists have defined adolescence as the competition betweenidentity and confusion, whereby adolescents must define who they are,bringing together self-understanding and social precautions into acoherent identity (Berger &amp Thompson, 1995). As they engagethemselves in this growth period, they also endeavor and remainconnected with the best things they valued, and ultimately move toaccept group’s values and norms.

Despitethe lengthy and the inept process of trying to understand the self,the rationale of adolescence identity as stable and mature isimportant. Possessing a stable and mature identity is of immensehelp to carry into adulthood, and help to link different experiencesin adolescence to who they strive to be in the present in goals,decisions and values of life (Erikson, 1975). When an adolescentendeavor to understand who they are, it is usually at this stage thatconflicts develop between adolescent and their parents sinceadolescents tend to know everything and they are correct than theirparents. The adolescents struggle towards identifying themselves asseparate and unique persons from their parents. Importantly,adolescence begins to venture into setting own values and goaldisregarding the set values and goals set by their parents and thesociety with the final goal being to showcase identity achievement(Erikson, 1968). From the analysis of Erickson`s theory, Marcia(1980) used a forged dimension of adolescents’ identity status suchas

1. Identityachieved,

2. Moratorium,

3. Foreclosureand

4. Identity confusion.

Theidentity consists of a period of crisis with personal involvement inbeliefs and values or career and ideology (Atwater, 1992).

Adolescentscategorized as identity achieved have experienced identity crisis andhave already solved the issues involved. Actually, they have selecteda career goal and take their values as sensible. Consequently, theycan adjust and change goals depending on experience (Atwater, 1992).Such adolescents are able to follow the rules and goals of theirparents, they find out to be worth valuable and able to omit aspectsthat they think are not valuable. Importantly, such adolescence isfirmly rooted in making independent ventures into realms ofadulthood.

Adolescentswho are categorized as identity moratorium wholly experiences delayedcrisis of identity. They have made strong commitments to personalgoals and values (Atwater, 1992). They are characterized by highlevels of anxiety resulting from unresolved exploration or crisis,and change their minds depending on the changes in situations. It isa growth stage of experimentations and rebelliousness adolescents tryto move to their identity in perceiving who they want to be.

Adolescentscategorized as identity foreclosure have completely kept offsubstantive identity crisis, normally via premature choices selectedby parents (Atwater, 1992. p. 237). Such adolescents make anythingavailable in order to please their parents, and will automaticallyfollow parents’ example. Despite the fact that these adolescentsare seen to be confident, there is anxiety as they copy and live alife of others instead of self. Although everything works out forthese adolescent, over-adaptation of parents’ values and idealswill finally be overshadowed as they move forward towards a moreautonomous life in adulthood.

Lastly,adolescents classified have greatly subdued the adolescent identityexploration (Atwater, 1992,). These adolescents face many hassles andbustles along the way as they postpone and cancel life choices andlive only by what appears or come out. Adolescents in this categorymainly involve themselves in social interactions, whether by sex,drugs or alcohol as they progress towards adulthood.

Whateverwhich identity, status an adolescent is moving through, the questionof ‘Who Am I?’ always come forward as a major psychological task.How the adolescent`s progress well through this important stage ofdevelopment of life in form of psychosocial development will greatlydetermine their capacity level of success and happiness as they growinto adulthood.

EmotionalIntelligence in Adolescents

Despiteemotional intelligent adopted as new aspect, it is always, evenlargely unappreciated, being part of humanity. It is an unexploitedarea regarding research, particularly with test regarding emotionalintelligence and determining the roles of emotional intelligence andits relationship with the happiness of adolescence. This poses aquintessential question, ‘why is emotional intelligence drawingmuch attention?’ the answer to this question lies in therecognition that our society, which is self-centered, is looking fordifferent methods to assess achievement and access. The newperspective is no longer intelligent quotient, but emotionalquotient. An integration of this method with adolescents, it isimperative to appreciate the importance of acknowledging emotionalintelligence and understanding how it impacts the growth anddevelopment and happiness of adolescence.

Froma survey of parents and teachers, Goleman (1995) cites somedisturbing data. These teachers and parents reveal that there is aglobal trend for the current generation of adolescent or children tobe more trouble emotionally than the past generation presentgeneration is more depressed and lonely, unruly a and unruly,nervous and full of worry, aggressive and impulsive..

Theseresults from this study indicate a growing need to address emotionalhealth of adolescents or children. The key puzzle in addressing thisissue is learning to manage adolescents in the form of healthyemotional development.

Saloveyand Mayer (1990), indicate that emotional intelligence consists ofabilities that may be classified into five domains involvesabilities that may be categorized into five domains:

1).Self-awareness- this is observation of self and recognition offeeling as it happens.

2).Management of emotions-this is handling feelings appropriately by therealization of what is behind a feeling finding means of handlingsadness, anxieties, fears and anger.

3).Motivating of self- this is directing all emotions towardsachievement of a goal through delay of gratification and stiflingimpulses and emotional self-control.

4).Empathy- this is being sensitive to people’s feelings and concernsand c by adopting their perspectives and acknowledging theirfeelings.

5).Handling relationships-this is by managing emotions in others throughsocial skills and competence.

Whenthe above domains are looked critically, they contain lots of usefulimplications for adolescence in high schools. When they are facedwith hassles of broken families, abuse, sex, temptations of drugsand alcohol and other challenges, all these domains of emotionalintelligence contribute to a true to self. Further, these factorshelp in promoting strong development in the body, mind and spirit forthe adolescent.

Themain challenge in fostering emotional intelligence in high schools iswhere, when and who to promote it. Many people claim that this issomething to be practiced at home or done in a family setting. Thefact is, emotional development in adolescents originates from theirinteraction with parents and siblings. However, in reality, thisgeneration’s adolescents are not impressed their parents, but bytheir peers, school environment, mass media and television.

Therefore,the opportune environment to teach students about life skills of thefive factors of emotional environment is a school. Also, schools arethe largest places where socialization largely takes place foradolescents.

Goleman(1995) indicates that emotional capacities begin to build frominfancy. According to Dr. David Hamburg, children’s transition intograde schools and transition into high school are two importantpoints in one’s adjustment. Thus, development of self within thefive factors of emotional intelligence is a cornerstone foradjustment leading to success and happiness.

Transitinginto high school ends the childhood and marks the beginning of adifficult, provocative and adventurous journey of adolescence in therealm of emotions (Goleman, 1995).

Adolescentspromoted to eight grades are faced with an environment whereappropriate social integration is crucial to success and happiness.As the adolescent progress in this adventurous journey to the periodof graduation and is involved in progression to adulthood, beingproficient is not only necessary, it is an important ingredient for asuccessful and happy life.

Accordingto Goleman (1995), students with emotional intelligence are able todeal with pressure from peers, high academic demands and drug,alcohol and sex demands. Within this literature review, emotionalintelligence in relation to happiness and success in adolescence isan important component that should be valued.

Individualsassume different capabilities and capacities

Individualsare different in capabilities and capacities in effectivelycontrolling their emotional lives. Everyone is different and notskilled in recognizing, operating and accepting emotionalinformation. Such variations in capabilities described as differencesin emotional intelligence play an important role in determination ofpsychological happiness (Salovey &amp Mayer, 1990). Various writershave established that emotional intelligence predicts the emotionalhappiness of adolescence. In expansive live situations, increase inemotional intelligence infers a key impact in devising the ways ofdealing with life hassles. Understanding oneself is a cornerstone ofbetter mental health and happiness. People who are able tomeaningfully understand and manage emotions, can easily put offpsychopathologists such as anxiety and other disturbing behaviors andmental health problems which cause unhappiness. Such persons areintelligent, emotionally. (Hamachek, 2000). Schutte et al, (1998) andMartinez-Pons (1997) claim that sadness and low mood, which is thecrucial component of unhappiness, can be correlated with higherlevels of emotional intelligence. Such people have a healthy copingstrategies and abilities of managing psychopathological problems anddysfunctions. Emotional intelligent adolescence has capability toengineer their negative and moody state (Schutte et al, 2002).

Gardner,2006, claimed that stress, interpersonal relations skills, anxiety,drug and alcohol consumption, aggressiveness, suicidal thoughts,depression and poor impulse control proficiently correlate with pooremotional intelligence, but when subjected well with high level ofemotional intelligence high level of satisfaction and happiness isexperienced.

Therole of learning institutions in adolescence and psychologicalhappiness

Moreattention is required to be put into education of young adolescentsor young adults focusing on issues related with social andpsychological development as an output for any learning institution.Those particular issues cover a major role in cultural, socioeconomicand economic development of society. Learning institutions areresponsible for creating discerning environmental context whichallows dissemination of culture, promoting intellectual power,developing quality life and mental health. Society applies studentefforts in the determination of educational policy (Kaplan &ampFlum, 2010).

Themain aims of the schools are to attend to the students’ state ofmental health (Saif, 2012). According to World Health Organization,mental health is the ability of a person to bring harmony in thepresence of others, the ability to alter and manipulate the socialenvironment to bring a proper resolution for his personal desires andemotional conflict. The main aim of mental health is to help everyonereach a happier and harmonious life, better understanding andpreventing behavioral and emotional disorders. (WHO, 2001).

Fromthe World Health Organization (2001), mental health is a criticalfactor and a necessity to improving the quality of human and is ofutmost significance among adolescents. A lot of research hassuggested that quite a number of factors impact psychological balancesuch as emotional intelligence (Yaghobi et al., 2011 Davis &ampHumphrey, 2012), Happiness (Yaghobi et al., 2011 ALbrkstn, 2003). Emotional intelligence in relation to happiness among adolescents hasbeen devoted for more research.

Eyzenckdescribed happiness as a total pleasure combining both maximumpositive effect and negative effect excluding pain. He believed thatadolescents with high happiness score are happy, healthy, andoptimistic and live peacefully in their environment. On the otherhand, adolescents who ranks low in happiness are pessimistic and arein constant conflict with environment. (Cloninger &amp Zohar, 2011).From a positive psychological dimension, happiness is based on one’sattitude and refers to a pleasant condition brought by this conditionfrom the positive emotions, experience and happiness in life.Normally, that pleasant and fun condition characterized by no anger,depression, irrational beliefs and other negative emotions.

Evidencesuggesting that happiness produces energy, vitality and dynamic life

Accordingto Hills &amp Argyle and, (2001), happiness act as a shieldprotecting human against mental stress guaranteeing physical andmental health. A happy life corresponds with realistic expectationsof others and the environment Tublin (2011). Optimistic and happypeople have a belief that bad things belong to them at the same timeand place and have no effect on other structures of their lives.

Ingeneral, cheerful and optimistic adolescents are positively andadaptively responsive to situations, and experiences lower stresslevels and have stronger immune systems than pessimistic and unhappyadolescences. Lybomirsky et al., (2005) claim that happiness limitstress and increases one’s enjoyment in performing any work.Kawamato (1999 quoted by Jamasy, 2011), believe that increase in thehappiness associated with family relationships, sleep, mental healthstatus, improved health status, friendships and memory lead to an increase in appetite.

Thisstudy examines the relationship between emotional intelligence andhappiness in young children or adolescents.


Wouldemotional intelligence be positively related to happiness amongadolescents?

Wouldemotional intelligence be negatively related to depression amongadolescents?


Thisstudy is of value to the growing knowledge of previous researchliterature on emotional intelligence, resiliency, happiness andmental health of adolescents. In addition, it explains how emotionalintelligence is linked with happiness and what are the factorscontributing to the deterrence of emotional intelligence andhappiness of a person. The results of this study support the ideas ofpast researchers, who noted that adolescents who are emotionallyintelligent, possess happiness and good mental health compared tothose who aren’t emotionally intelligent.


Participantsin this study were one hundred and eighty two participants. The rangeof age was twelve to eighteen with a mean age of 15.70. Theseparticipants were selected by way of mixed model, sampling procedurefrom different educational institutions of Manchester City. Theparticipants with physical disability and parented by a single parentwere excluded from this research.


Thesample was chosen from three different learning institutions of theCity of Manchester. The researchers of this study sought permissionfrom the authorities of the learning institutions through verbal andwritten means. Subsequently, the researchers presented themselves tothe sample participants and built good rapport. The team thenexplained that the data collected will be treated as confidential andwould only be accessed by the researchers.

Theresearchers also discussed with the participants concerning theirvoluntary participation in this study no one has been forced andthey have volunteered to provide their views without expecting anytoken.

Afterwards,the reporters administered the demographic data sheet in order toestablish the demographic data of the participants such as education,disability status, and structure of the family, parent’s education,parents’ occupation and family income.

Afteracquiring the demographic data, the researchers then chose theparticipants the participants, who are eligible for emotional andhappiness data collection as per the set criteria of types ofparticipants in this project. Then the Rosenberg self-esteem scale,trait emotional intelligence questionnaire and children’s anxietyand depression scale were administered to assess the levels ofhappiness and emotional intelligence. Rosenberg self-esteem scale andchildren’s anxiety and depression scale were used to assess levelsof happiness in adolescents.

Descriptionof instruments used to measure ei and happinessDemographicData Sheet

Thedemographic data sheet is used by researchers to obtain demographicdata of participants. These demographic data include participant’sgender, age, marital status, socioeconomic status, disability status,parent’s education, parent’s occupation and family income.

TraitEmotional Intelligence Questionnaire

Theshort form for Trait Emotional Intelligence questionnaire adolescenceis TEIQue (Petrides &amp Furnhm, 2003). TEIQue is a simple versionof Adult TEIQue in terms of wording. Its scales have 30 statementsobtained from the 15 sub scales of the Adult TEIQue sampling domain.The participants respond to on a 7 point Likert Scale. The higher thescore on the TEIQue scale, the higher the Trait EmotionalIntelligence level.

Children’sAnxiety and Depression Scale

Accordingto (Chorpita, 1998), Urdu version (Mehmood &amp Sultan, 2014)children’s anxiety and depression scale is a 47-item scale. Itconsists of six subscales namely

1)Social anxiety disorder

2)Separation anxiety disorder

3)Obsessive compulsive disorder

4)Generalized anxiety disorder

5)Major depressive disorder.

Thelevel of depression is checked by the subscale of depressions ofChildren’s Anxiety and Depression Scale and rated on a five-pointLikert Scale. The higher the score on the level of anxiety anddepression

RosenbergSelf-esteem Scale

RosenbergSelf-esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1965) was developed to measure thelevel of self-esteem in the world. It comprises ten items. Itselfreport and measure self-esteem on a four-point rating scale. Thehigher the score on the rating scale, the higher the level ofself-esteem.

EmotionalIntelligence Scale

Inother studies, for assessment of emotional intelligence, Shutte etal’s (1998) emotional intelligence scale is used. This is a33-point scale constructed from the emotional intelligence model ofMayer and Sallovey (1997) it is used to assess three components ofemotional intelligence, including emotional efficiency, regulation ofemotions and emotional evaluation in the five-point Likert Scale.

Five-pointLikert Scale includes score 1 (Completely disagree) to score 5(totally agree). The total score for the emotional intelligence isderived from individual scores of components. A higher scoreindicates high emotional intelligence while low score indicates lowemotional intelligence of a student.

Oxfordhappiness scale:

TheOxford happiness scale is used to measure the level of happiness.This scale was developed by Argele and Hills (2002). The basis ofthis questionnaire relies on the definition of happiness as definedby Argele and Lu (1990). According to Argele et al’s view (1989),the Oxford happiness scale questionnaire is the opposite of the Beckdepression questionnaire. The Oxford’s scale consists of 29articles and five domains consent (11), positive mood (8), health(6), efficacy (4) and self-esteem (2). Four points Likert scale isthen used to rate the happiness. Different options are graded withcorresponding number never option gets 0, low option gets 1, mediumoption gets 2 and high option gets 3. The minimum score is 0 whilethe maximum score is 87.


Inthis section, the results of the research were presented. Table 1 and2 indicates the descriptive statistics of the sample, whereas thetable 3 and 4 shows the relationship between emotional intelligencewith depression and self-esteem.


Table1.The mean and standard deviation of age and income




Standard Deviation









Table2: The frequencies of gender and family structures for 182participants







65.4 %



34.6 %

Family structure



66.4 %



33.6 %

Table3: the Mean, Standard Deviation and relationship between EmotionalIntelligence and Self-esteem



















(r=.303, p&lt.01) indicated that Emotional intelligence is positivelyrelated to Self-esteem among adolescents

Table4: The mean, Standard Deviation and relationship between EmotionalIntelligence and Depression



















NB:( r=-. 405, p&lt. 01) Indicates that Emotional intelligence isnegatively related to Depression among adolescents.


Thelogic behind this chapter is to illustrate and discuss the results ofthe current study and explain the relationship of emotionalintelligence on the happiness of adolescents. Current researchassesses the link of emotional intelligence with adolescent’shappiness (measured in depression and self-esteem. The results ofthis study indicate a remarkable positive relationship betweenemotional intelligence and self-esteem and also show a negativerelationship between emotional intelligence and depression.

Thefindings of this literature support the results of past researchessince Methew et al, 2002 deduced on significant links betweenemotional intelligence and happiness as he inferred that lowemotional intelligence anddepression.

Thefindings of this literature support the results of past researchessince Matthew et al, 2002 deduced on significant links betweenemotional intelligence and happiness as he inferred that lowemotional intelligence is a serious reason of developing variouspsychopathologies such as anxiety and mood disorders. People who areintelligent, emotionally perceive and express their emotionsmeaningfully, hence they receive affirmative responses from thecommunity and persons around them, which develop and improve one’sconfidence and boost self-esteem. In addition, emotionallyintelligent adolescent are optimistic to themselves and society. They understand their needs, and how they can meet their needsrightfully without violating the rights of others. Such personspossess self-regard, they are conscious of how other people perceivethemselves, and their abilities to manage their emotions in certainproblematic and disturbing circumstances efficiently.

Thepresent results are also related to the work of Abraham et al (2009).They reported that emotional intelligence is a vital characteristicof psychological well-being. An adolescent with high emotionalintelligence possess good mental health, which eventually leads to ahappy life. They tend to be good thinkers, learner and creative. Alot of researches have shown that positive emotional intelligence iscorrelated with high self-esteem level (Schutte et al, 2002) lowlevel of depression high level of life satisfaction (Ciarrochi etal., 2000) and optimism (Schutte et al, 1998).

Schutteet al (2002) illustrated the relationship between emotionalintelligence and other psychological forms. The results claim thathigh self-esteem and positive mood is strongly linked with emotionalintelligence. Mood regulation and social skills are the main conceptsof emotional intelligence which aid a person to regulate themselvesand develop a positive self-image. The rationale behind that might beemotions of intelligent, emotional people follow their behaviorsperception and thinking patterns as opposed to their behaviorthinking follow emotions. This aids in personal growth, selfawareness, relationship management, self-motivation and empathy,which eventually improves the life satisfaction of individuals andhappiness.

Emotionsare the primary building blocks psychological health of human. Itworks as a binding force for establishing and growingself-relationship and relationship with others. Emotionallyintelligent persons adopt flexible life patterns, allowing him toinitiate attitude changes, which safeguard a person to feel failure,neglect and develop depression. There is a successive structural linkbetween emotional intelligence and life success of an adolescent. Ahigh emotional intelligence of a child facilitates or directs aperson toward achieving positive senses of self, which cause thedevelopment of high level self-esteem. Highly self-esteemedadolescents are particularly assertive and open, and tackle lifehardships efficiently and intellectually, which culminate in goodperformance hence lead to a happy life.

EmotionalIntelligence with Satisfaction with Life and Psychological happiness

Emotionalintelligence has been moderately related to both life satisfactionand psychological happiness, but it has been demonstrated to explainsome variation of psychological happiness but not life satisfaction.Supporting facts are usually hard to find since academic reviewersagree that much has not been published concerning this field, hencedifficult to establish what emotional intelligence predict (Mayer &ampCobb, 2000). In addition, debate in the literature with regards tothe true meaning of emotional intelligence and how to measure, leavesits connection with previous studies hard to determine. However, itis plausible in that, current understanding show that a student whopossess emotional intelligence score highly in psychologicalhappiness as a result of being intelligent emotionally.

Mayerand Cobb (2000), defined emotional intelligence as the ability toprocess emotional information accurately and efficiently, in additionto perceiving, assimilating, understanding and managing emotions.Based on this definition, a student with high intelligence would alsohave elements of psychological happiness such as life purpose,self-acceptance, and positive relation to other students,self-acceptance, and mastery of surrounding, autonomy, and personalgrowth. This result can be explained by integrating social conceptswith emotional intelligence.

Socialperspective incorporation is a concept developed by Selman (1980). Itinvolves possessing social skills which enable an individual to beaware of the views of others and take that awareness intoconsideration with one’s views when relating to persons. Selmannotes that the experience with others and learning are the majorfactors of social perspective taking. A teenager would either lie atstage three or four of social perspective taking. Stage three alsotermed third person taking involve an adolescent stepping outside hisor views and others’ views and assume the perspectives of a neutralthird person. Stage four also known as in-depth and societalperspectives, taking involve an adolescent deeply abstracted wherebyall third-person perspectives are conglomerated to form a group orsocietal agreement.

Stagethree is an indication of early adolescence while stage four is anindication of late adolescence. When the concept of socialperspective taking is combined with emotional intelligence from anadolescent’s growth and development perspective, one wouldrecognize the impacts emotional intelligence has on the psychologicalhappiness.

Manyexplanations may be made to explain why teens who score highly onemotional intelligence or social perspective taking again scoreshighly in psychological happiness. One explanation is thatadolescents with high emotional intelligence are adept atunderstanding their emotions and emotions of others. This places themin a situation where they attract positive peer correlation, sincepeople will realize this is a person they can trust and talk to. Dueto positive socialization, teens will feel good and arepsychologically well-off.

Thesecond explanation is that adolescents are able to give support toothers and get support in return, this social reciprocation assistthem to meet their needs from the relationship enabling them to bepsychologically well off.

Thirdly,teens who are more tuned with their views and emotions, includingother’s view and emotions may be more equipped to set up boundariesand control their lives. They will be able to okay or say yes tothings they can manage to handle and say no to things they are notwithin their capability and will overburden them. These factors lowerthe level of stress in students putting them in positions where theyare psychologically happy. No matter what the explanation is adopted,the important idea is that a teen who scores highly in emotionalintelligence possess a number of positive attributes and tools forpositive socialization and being conversant with understanding selfand others. Possessing this valuable asset as a student lends itselfto positive ramification with higher psychological happiness as oneof them.

Familyrole in the relationship between emotional intelligence and happinessof adolescents

Thesecondary level of education serves as a bridge between elementarylearning and higher learning, and has a key part to play in thisaspect, in addition to laying the foundation of learning of children,secondary education is pivotal in reshaping and directing a child toa successful future. Secondary education involves children aged from14 to 18 years old studying in classes 9 to 10 transiting to highschool classes of 11 and 12. A child in this age bracket or level ofeducation is a stranger to his or her surroundings stranger toadulthood, bored with everything, and never understood by anyone, andtherefore is an adolescent.

Adolescence,which is a period between 10 to 19 years age of a child, is a lifephase featuring highest physical growth, and psychological andbehavioral changes hence transforming from childhood to adulthood.This transformation involves puberty or biological, social andpsychological changes. Pubertal and psychological changes are easilymeasured or predicted. The adolescence is filled with biological,physical, intellectual and emotional changes leading to a discoveryof oneself and relationship with others.

Studieshave revealed that the home environment and parental involvement,tremendously contributes to a child’s emotional development andlearning hence in the end affects their happiness. The roles ofparents that is rearing styles, thus outcomes in the individualpersonalities of the children cannot be taken for granted. Childrenbrought up in a very cohesive family structure, are more probable todevelop great feelings of empthaty and handle responsibility fortheir parents. Prevailing healthy relationship between a parent andhis child in the family, enables an adolescent to feel secure,well-adjusted and think he is well accepted in the family and in hisor her future, he will carry on to feel well adjusted and feelsaccepted by the society leading to happiness in his or her life.

Despitethe family constituting a child first and enduring socialenvironment, it impacts on the emotional intelligence or developmentand social competence have received little research. Therefore, thereis a pressing need to understand a parent-child relationship role in influencing emotional intelligence of an adolescent. Adolescence ischaracterized with increased emotionality sometimes leading toemotional disequilibrium as is observed in adolescent children. Thisis related to the radical changes and discomforts related to them inearly periods of adolescence. Results are available concerning theparent relationships and emotional intelligence and proofs thecorrelation between family relationship with the emotionalintelligence of adolescents.

Eisenberg,Fabes and Murphy (1996) looked at the relationship between father’sand mother’s emotion related practices and teacher’s andparent’s related reports of third and sixth grade social skills,fame, coping, and the quantity and quality of children`s comfort onan infant. Mother’s problem-father’s reaction showed that thisreaction is positively related to a child’s social functioning andcoping, in contrast maternal minimizing reactions is connected withlower levels of social competence and higher level of avoidantcoping.

Rice,Cunningham and Young (1997) experimented on the connection betweenparental attachment bonds to emotional adjustments moderated bysocial competence. The relation variables were deemed to be morenecessary in social competence development and emotional adjustmentsfor Black students more than the white students in this study therewere no hyphotesis for differences in gender. Differences in genderof parents emerged, whereby, a general attachment to a father than toa mother was a better predictor of social competence.

Inadolescence phase, equilibrium of the forces of social, mental andphysical diminishes completely resulting to an individual makingadjustments with himself, family and society. But very researches orstudies are available on the role of parents in the lives ofadolescents in making such adjustments. As hyphotesized, the findingsshow the part played by parents both negatively and positivelyaffecting the adolescent’s adjustments, with differences infather’s verses mother’s effects. The discussion needs to be heldto focus on understanding real values of father’s verses mother’simpact on the functioning adjustment of children. Simpkins, et al(2009), came out with clusters of parenting behaviors based onparent-school involvement, community involvement, rules setting, andcognitive stimulations.

Accordingto Dwairy, Marwan 2010) adolescent-family connectedness between achild and family is an important factor that differentiatescollective and individualistic cultures. By use of Multi-generationalInterconnectenss Scale to measure connectedness in nine western andeastern countries, he found out that connectedness was higher in theeastern countries, but lower in western countries, with femaleadolescents more connected than male counterparts to their families.The findings showed that connectedness was higher among familiesexhibiting higher economic and education levels. Financial andfunctional connectedness are attributed to better mental health andhappiness while emotional connectedness is attributed withpsychological disorders such as stress and depression.

Theparent-child relationship is an essential regulatory factor ofadolescent behavior. A child rearing practice plays a major role inthe individual personality development of children. Therefore ahealthy child rearing rearing programs by parents creates a socialcontrolled environment of love and discipline suitable for assistingchildren to overcome distress and become happy.

APPLICATIONSOF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCEEmotionalintelligence and Happiness in athletes

Table1.Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and sub-scale withhappiness









Social skills


















Table2.Regression results







Std. Error





















  • Self-control

  • Unanimity

  • Social skills









Today’syouths who are adolescents advance to championship in sports dependson various factors. These factors include the identification andpushing of vulnerable youths towards a certain sport and trainingintensively both physically and psychologically in quite a number ofprograms. Coaches knows that the psychological readiness of thesesports persons is one of the crucial factors in skills implementationand the performance, mental health and physical health is possiblethrough psychological skill training. Generally, the emotionalability to realize proper responses are playing a key role incountering daily events, expand knowledge and remain pessimisticconcerning emotions and events. Therefore, adolescent athletes whoare able to realize, control and utilize these emotional capabilitiespossess a sense of good mental fitness, life satisfaction and highsocial support. Many studies reveal that if a person is ableemotionally, it is better to be confronted with obstacles of life andthis will lead to good mental health. Presently, a lot of researchersrecognize that if a person is able in form of emotional excitement,he has ability to confront obstacles of life leading to morehappiness. From Jain and Sinha’s (2005) studies, there is apositive relationship between emotional intelligence and happinessand can even be predicted. Besharat et al (2006) in a researchproject, showed that emotional intelligence and sports have apositive relationship in individual or group sports but can only bepredicted in group sports.

Theimportance of physical activities in the development of happiness andfoster emotional intelligence is notable. Student athletes are stableemotionally, self-confident has high intellectual ability, and theyhave also created personal factors. Carson et al (2000) said thatemotional intelligence has a negative relationship with anxiety anddepression and has a positive correlation with social functions of anadolescent. Siaruji et al (2001) indicated that some emotionalintelligence forms safeguards a person from depression and anxietyleading to better consistency. From this, studies in this field ofemotional intelligence with happiness or mental health components insome functional areas have also revealed that there is a structuralpositive relationship with mental health, emotional and socialidentifications adaptation and has got a negative relationship withdepression and anxiety.

Also,studies reveal the purpose of psychological issues in increasingathletes’ capacity and athletes and coaches have noticed thatsports success is not only achieved through improving physicalperformance and physical activity but also through enhancingpsychological concepts. It looks as though recognition of thecorrelation between emotional intelligence and psychological featuresof athletes, not only assist coaches to select players and grant theresponsibility and understanding behavior and how to control thebehavior, but also assists in consideration of features of sports insociety.

ArnoldBizer claims that the mental health of a person is effected just likehis physical fitness and physical fitness assists a person to copewith his surrounding. Ciarrochi, et al (2001) revealed that someemotional intelligence concepts secure a person who has suffered fromstress and depression hence leading to better adaptation. Forinstance, the capability to control excitement by tending to keep upwith a positive mood has positive relation and it suppresses fromdepressive mood. Ciarrochi, et al (2001) indicated that adolescents,who are endowed with the ability to understand other people’s emotions, engage in more satisfaction and moral support.

Thefindings of Austin et al (2005) show that emotional intelligence isrelated to life satisfaction, social relations ranges and its qualityand has a negative relationship with psychological stress anddepression. Research on emotional intelligence with mental healthcomponents shows that there is a positive relationship with mentalhealth, adaptation in terms of emotion and social reactions,emotional well-being and life satisfaction related negatively topsychological stress and depression.

Lately,the importance of the roles of psychological issues in promotingyoung athletics capacities has been noted in the past and youngathletes and their coaches have noted that sports success can beachieved by considering the mental health or happiness in relation toemotional intelligence.

Application to Counseling and Education

Inregard to this study, the relationship between emotional intelligenceand happiness can be applied in counseling and educational settings.The relationship of emotional fitness, psychological happiness andmeaning, along with variation in psychological well-being orhappiness through emotional intelligence and meaning are allessential indicators in adolescent’s development. Despite the factthat students who scores high in emotional intelligence, lifesatisfaction, and meaning also scores highly in psychologicalwell-being furnish itself to the suggestion for counseling. A peercounselor may intend to collect specific information from theirclients in order to derive a vision for their clients and theirpsychological, emotional and social backgrounds.

Adolescenceis a crucial development period in life and existing and personalmeanings are the major elements in growth of adolescents. Techniquesof counseling can be used to assist adolescent discover where theirsources of meaning are weak as well as sources where meaning isstrong. Though such discovery, a counselor may help a client toexpand where they get the meaning, retain current meaning sources andto rectify the weak sources of meaning. In doing this, theadolescents’ sense of psychological happiness will increase alongwith their improvement of personal meaning. The counselingimplication of the results in regards to family relations anddependent measures is obvious and enough studies from the past wouldsupport such implications.

Itis important for a counselor to determine the relationship the peerhas with other family members. This relationship information isexceptionally important since provides valuable insight intofundamental issues the client present. Issues like anover-controlling parents, lack of parental attention, orover-expecting parents affects adolescents’ relationships withtheir family members. These issues are assessed, inquired deeply andworked on through understanding about the importance of qualityrelationship in the family.

Theinsinuations of these results in a learning setting are essential andrelevant. The outcome indicates that emotional intelligence andmeaning are crucial for nurturing happiness in adolescents. Goleman(1995) noted that many learning institutions have implementedprograms, aimed at fostering emotional intelligence and enhancing theways students relates to each other. As per the current findings, itis similarly paramount to aid, promote personal meaning in schools,especially the adolescent classes. By virtue of assisting students tolook for and locate meaning in life, moral character and developmentcan be boosted. Moreover, it will assist to undertake moralunhappiness via encouraging adolescents to explore the topic ofmeaning. Being meaningless and bored in adolescence may lead to anumber of difficulties and distractions. To deal with thesedistractions, it is better to aid students to remain focused.

Thefinding shows that emotional intelligence has an important positiverelationship with happiness of adolescent, in other words, byincreasing emotional intelligence of adolescence, the amount ofhappiness increases. This result goes hand in hand with the findingsof Jin and Sin (2005). The findings of regression analysis todetermine the factors of emotional intelligence in illustratinghappiness indicated that social-skills development, empathy andself-control have higher impacts in happiness prediction. Selfcontrol itself has more than fifty percent variation in happiness.Sound adolescents in this factor are able to avoid negative emotionslike frustrations, anxieties and irritability. For example, youngstudent athletes during sports events may not be majorly faced withdifficulties and distracting situations or in case of disruptivesituations they are able to overcome and return to optimalconditions.

Empathyor a person’s ability to note the emotion of others is an importantdomain in predicting that amount of happiness. This factor like otherfactors helps adolescents to effectively interact with each other.Empathy safeguards a person against psychopathologies such as stress.

Socialskill acts as a moderator and adolescents are able to acquire skillsto interact with each other hence leading to happiness.


Asnoted from the literature review, most of researchers appliesconstructs like undidtional positive regard, warmth, affection andemotional support. However, it is not possible to determine if thosefactors have similary effects on development of attributes likeself-esteem, happiness and emotional intelligence. As a result, thisstudy suggest possible further research avenues. For instance, whatare the exceptional characteristics of adolescent love that arecorrelated with the growth of emotional intelligence? Do the presentrelationship with parents impact an individual early recollections oftheir parents’ parenting? If the future research will be able toconduct a study aimed at controlling the impacts of the presentrelationships with parents will greatly assist in answering thesequestions.


Itis worth noting that, based on the findings of this study as well theliterature review, it can be concluded that, the study of emotionalintelligence have been explored for many years. The previous studiesfinds that emotional intelligence is correlated with factors likelife satisfaction, optimism, overall intelligence, personality,adaptability and emotional disorder such as depression, anxiety,family size, alexithymia, gender and birth order.

Additionally,the literature review has explored multifaceted dimensions of variousfactors and their contributions to adolescent happiness. The role ofemotional intelligence and contributing factors of psychologicalhappiness has been widely determined. The implication of thisliterature review can be carried forward into both sports andcounseling and educational settings. To assist, promote not only thehappiness of adolescents, but also their moral development, bothemotional intelligence and mental health can be carried forward intosports and counseling and learning setting.


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