Race and Ethnicity

Davis, Larry E, and Rafael J. Engel. Measuring .New York: Springer, 2011. Internet resource.

Davis is a full Professor of the Community Development and anactivist of Social Justice at the University of Durham. He is thesenior coordinator of the large scale community development projectsover the Europe. It has promoted him to experience the perceptionsand behaviors of different subgroups in the region. Out of hisexperiences and self-proclamation of the victims from discriminationon the basis of race, he developed research interests in socialjustices, focusing race and ethnicity, local governance, and thecommunity enterprise. He has provided wide publications on theconcept of “race”. His recent work is the book, Child SlaveryNow (The Policy Press, 2014). Davis looks at the contemporarymatters such as criminal punishment. He indicates “Black criminalsare likely to receive harsher punishment than the white felonies forcommitting the same crime. Drug trafficking is worse for a blackperson than for the white offenders” (365).

Gracia, Jorge J. E. Race or Ethnicity?: On Black and LatinoIdentity. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2007. Print.

Gracia, J. J. E. is a chairman of philosophy at the University of NewYork. He is also a Distinguished Professor at the University ofBuffalo. He is a Reader on the issues of racism and ethnicity at theUniversity of New Yolk. This position has prompted him to have a longstanding interest in the social justice, producing severalpublications touching on the . As an independentresearcher, Gracia has extensively researched on issues affectingdisabled people ranging from the blacks and other minority groups inthe world. It has made his academic work exceptional for this topic.The author seeks to explore the extent to which students fromdifferent races would react in solving a class problem. The authordeploys two experiments, a grouped activity between whites and blackstudents. The study indicates “Around 60% of the black studentswould solve the matter diligently without cause any tension in theentire institutions. They could solve the case within a matter of 30minutes and enhance harmony to the affected parties.” On thecontrary, the experiment indicates, “The white students would takemore time before settling on an agreement” (232-233). Worse, theywould cause tension in the institution since every other person inthe group would like to exercise his or her power to control therest. The author applies this concept to eliminate the ideology ofperceiving the blacks as inefficient and unreliable.

Schaefer, Richard T. Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society.Los Angeles: SAGE Publications, 2008. Print.

Schaefer is a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at Massuchetes University.He is in charge of the Community Cohesion at the University ofBirmingham. He has done exploration on racism and health for the pastten years. Moreover, he has a unique interest in studying the effectsof Racism on the minority groups around the Worlds. In collaborationwith other researcher, he has managed to publish more than five booksincluding writing twelve thesis on racism and ethnicity. It increasesthe reliability of the source for this task. In his work, Schaeferfocuses on racial segregation in housing, intimidations and violenceof the minority groups that integrate the white neighborhoods(Schaefer, 2008, p.233). With an overview drawn from the historicgrounds, this work indicates that the hatred directed towards the“people of color” is in the context of communitydisorganizations. The author concludes by providing a series ofremedies which would fill the loops in combating racism in thesociety.


Davis, Larry E, and Rafael J. Engel. Measuring .New York: Springer, 2011. Internet resource.Gracia, Jorge J. E. Raceor Ethnicity?: On Black and Latino Identity. Ithaca:

Cornell University Press, 2007.Print.

Schaefer, Richard T. Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society.Los Angeles: SAGE

Publications, 2008. Print.