Questions and answers

Questions and answers 3

  1. Technology: This week`s readings explore some of the aspects of industrialization. Choose one topic (choices can be an area such as medicine, labor, hygiene, transportation, etc.) and discuss the impact of industrialization.

Impactof industrialization on the environment

Economicgrowth has always been regarded as a key driver of the world’sgrowth, since the ages of industrial and technological revolutions.Growth of these industries has had diverse effects on the environmentbringing in severe downside issues. There has been uncontrolledincrease in the number of massive emitting industries this is as aresult of greed from the human beings. They do not consider theharmful effects that these industries pose to the environment. Someof these key industries are manufacturing and transportation, whichare not only causing immense environmental stress but also exhaustingthe abundant earth’s resources (Foster,2013).

Availabilityof natural resources is what industry productiveness relies on. TheImpactof industrialization on the environment hasboth positive and negative outcomes, with negatives outweighing thepositives. Natural elements such as air, soil, water are consideredto be positive environmental assets. Pollution of these assets arethe byproducts of industrial development in our cities the endresult being global warming and the greenhouse effect (Foster, 2013).According to recent studies, environmental and ecological degradationis occurring at a high rate, and they are soon to become permanent.The result of this will be loss of human life, deteriorating ofhuman health, with the costs being felt by the government,manufacturing sector and the society.

Thereis, therefore, need to emphasize the need for theImpact of industrialization on the environment witha lot of intensity. Our world is quietly facing massive destructionfrom these industries. A recent research from Washington fisheriesdepartment shows that there is a growing population of mutilated fishin three Pennsylvania river basins. Male fish are developing femaleparts and vice versa. These shocking revelations do not even make iton national television since such stories have become common worldover (Wilmer,2011).It is important therefore, to address these issues, otherwise soonwe will be living in a hazardous environment.

References

Wilmer,F. (2011). Industrialization(1. Aufl. ed.). Stuttgart: Klett.

Foster,J. (2013). EnvironmentalImpact of Industrialization in the United States.Contemporary United States, 369-380.

  1. Economics: State and Local Governments in this country use Sales Taxes as means of generating revenue. In other countries, a value added tax (VAT) is used to generate Government revenue. Please explain the difference. In your opinion which tax system is most efficient? Please explain why with examples.

ValueAdded Tax is often referred to as the &quotgoods and service tax&quot.This type of tax is very different from Sales Tax which is levied onexchanges. This is a form of indirect tax, which is usually imposedon goods and services at their different stages of production. ValueAdded Tax is maintained at a flat rate irrespective of whether it isbeing levied on imported goods or local products. It is a kind of taxsystem that has seen application in most European and non-Europeancountries, with the other countries advocating Sales Tax as a meansof revenue generation (Kaplow, 2010). One advantage that VAT has overSales Tax is its transparent and neutral nature.

SalesTax is the kind of tax that is normally imposed on the retail priceof goods. Its main difference from Value Added Tax being that it islevied on the total value of goods and services. VAT system, unlikethe Sales Tax system, explains the problem of input tax, which is thecause of increase in consumer prices (Bickley, 2011). Value Added Taxaddresses this issue as tax is imposed on the value added to a goodat every stage of production, with the final consumers being thebearers of this burden.

Inmy opinion Sales Tax is the best form of taxation, since it isnormally levied only on the consumer and it minimally hinderseconomic growth.

Example1

Youbuy a house in California for $600,000 and pay tax at 8%. How much isthe Sales Tax?

Toget the Sales Tax simply multiply the cost of the house by the taxrate

Tax:8%

Cost:$600,000

SalesTax: $600,000* 0.08 = $ 48,000.

Example2

Thecost price of an SMP table is $60 and you are offered a discount of$5 and pay tax at 5%. What is the Sales Tax?

Cost:$60

Taxrate: 5%

Discount:5

SalesTax: ($60-$5) = $55

$55*0.05=$ 2.75

References

Kaplow,L. (2010). Taxation.Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Bickley,J. (2011). Valueadded tax: Concepts, policy issues, and OECD experiences.New York: Novinka Books.

  1. Humanities: Select three articles from any 3 writing sources of your choice like a newspaper, journal, magazine, etc. Identify at least one argument that is articulated in each source. If you cannot find an argument in the article, then turn to another that does contain an identifiable argument as you need 3. Be sure to number the premises (an argument will have at least 2) and provide the conclusion of each argument. You may need to spell out implicit premises the author of the article is relying on without stating them. Is each argument you identify in a valid format? Is each argument sound? Why or why not? If an argument is invalid, what fallacy is it committing and why that one? If the argument is valid, does the argument follow a standard pattern like Modus Tollens or another we studied? Finally, provide a key argument that you are articulating for the final paper of this course. Be sure to provide and number the premises, to list the conclusion, and for the argument to be valid.

1)In order to install the program, you must first put the CD in theplayer. 2) Open up the File Manager, click on &quotRun&quot andtype in &quotD: Install.&quot 3) After the program is loaded, youwill need to restart the computer to use the program.”

Thisexcerpt from the article does not have an argument, since it is aninstruction which is just meant to be a guide on howto install a program into a computer.

Spinelli(2008, May 1). “1)Research has shown that people who do at least 30 minutes a day ofvigorous exercise reduce their risk of heart disease and some formsof cancer. 2) It would be wise for you to begin a daily program ofexercise.”

Thisis a valid and sound argument as both the premise and conclusion aretrue.

Premises:1Researchhas shown that people who do at least 30 minutes a day of vigorousexercise reduce their risk of heart disease and some forms of cancer

Conclusion:It would be wise for you to begin a daily program of exercise.

Doughty(2009, February 3). “1)Two teenagers saw the movie, &quotNatural Born Killers,&quot andwent out on a killing spree. 2) A number of teenagers who havecommitted violence at schools have spent many hour playing videogames filled with murder and violence. 3) We must have some strictercontrols on the content of entertainment that is viewed byteenagers.”

Thisis a valid and sound argument as both the premise and conclusion aretrue.

Premises:1, 2

Twoteenagers saw the movie, &quotNatural Born Killers,&quot and wentout on a killing spree.

Anumber of teenagers who have committed violence at schools have spentmany hour playing video games filled with murder and violence.

Conclusion:We must have some stricter controls on the content of entertainmentthat is viewed by teenagers.

Thekey argument that I am articulating for the final paper of thiscourse is:

  1. I must study hard for my final paper. 2) As this will help me get a good grade. 3) Getting a good grade will really make me fulfilled.

Premises:1, 2

Imust study hard for my final paper

Asthis will help me get a good grade

Conclusion:Getting a good grade will really make me fulfilled.

References

Doughty,S. (2009, February 3). Computers and TV Blamed for Teenage Violenceand Casual Sex Screen Time: The Report Says Computer Games CanEncourage Aggressive Behaviour. DailyMail.

Spinelli,J. (2008, May 1). Heart guard: Activity at any level puts you a stepahead.(importance of Exercise). InsideBusiness.