Questions and answers PART A

Questionsand answers


Defineresolution and how it is measured?

Resolutioncan be defined as the measure of a devices ability to distinguishvariations in colors. A good description would be the number ofpixels that are normally used to display an image. If one needs ahigher resolution, then he/she must use a device with more pixels inorder to get a crisper or cleaner image.

Resolutionis measured by the number of pixels on an image, and because of thelarge quantity of pixels it is usually measured in megapixels. Whatare the two major advantages identified in the required reading forthe use of satellites for intelligence gathering? Explain.

Accordingto Robert M. Clark (2014), Geospatial intelligence (GEOINT) as amethod of intelligence gathering has two major advantages. It ispractical and less expensive. Despite having cost a fortune toinstall those satellites, the use of satellites gives real time dataand it is very easy to obtain information for further analysis.Commercial imagery can be shared with foreign governments, whilestill protecting sensitive classified imagery.

Defineand discuss the tradeoffs between aperture and focal lengthdimensions in optical imaging.A lens aperture is ahole through which light enters while focal length is the distancebetween the primary focus and the pole of the lens.

Ifyou want to modify the characteristic of the image you are focusingon, manipulation of depth is the best method, via the cameraaperture. This normally has little or no effect on the imagecomposition. A change in distance and focal length also affects DOF,resulting to trade-offs in terms of composition. The best way totherefore manipulate DOF without affecting the composition of a photois changing the size of the aperture.

Fromthe required readings identify the four major spectral imagingcategories, general level of resolution, number of spectral bands,and what level of information they obtain.

Multispectralimaging: A type of imaging category that captures data fromimages at specified frequencies. This is normally across anelectromagnetic spectrum. The general level of resolution is 0.7 µmto 0.4&nbspµm, number of spectral bands is1000 µm.

Hyperspectral imaging: A type of imaging category where information iscollected and processed from across an electromagnetic spectrum. Thegeneral level of resolution is 320 data points.

Fullspectral imaging: A better version of hyper spectral imaging.This type of imaging acquires data as a combination of severalspectral bands.

Imagingspectroscopy: This is a type of imaging category thatsimultaneously acquires spatially co-registered images in many bands,its number of spectral bands 100,000.

Whencompared with optical imaging why is synthetic aperture radar one ofthe most powerful tools in intelligence collection?

Syntheticaperture radar is one of the most powerful tools in intelligencecollection, sine it can be used to create images of an object in 2and 3 Dimension, which normal optical imaging is not capable of.

Discussthe tradeoffs of antennas and receivers in SIGINT systems

Bandwidth:If the bandwidth is low SIGINT systems will not be able to interceptthe information, there is therefore need to adopt equipment with highbandwidth.

Trianglesize: The smaller the antennae the narrower the bandwidth. SIGINTsystems need to adopt technology that will allow them to obtaininformation irrespective of the triangular size.

Efficiency:There is need to measure how much of the RF power is going to beradiated. SIGINT systems need to adopt small loop antennae’s withradiation resistance capabilities, normally measured in milliohms.


Describeand give two examples from the readings of materials samplingintelligence collectionMaterialssampling intelligence collection (MASINT)is the kind of intelligence that is technically derived and whencollected and analyzed by intelligence professionals, providesresults that describe the characteristics of the various dynamicsources. Biologicaland Chemical (MASINT)are some of the example as discussed from the readings, describingthe importance of conducting such kinds of intelligence.

Describechemical sampling and at least three types of collection targets itis usually used against.Chemical sampling is asampling technique where a sample is obtained through other means andthen subjected to chemicals to purify off irrelevant elements andthen presented for analysis.

Chemicalsampling is usually used against water bodies, human beings duringpostmortem and food samples.

Biometricsensors collect information on what (list at least five)?

Biometricsensors collect information on:

  • Face recognition

  • Voice recognition

  • Facial recognition

  • Iris recognition

  • Fingerprint sensing.

Whatare the two principle purposes for biological intelligence andobtaining biological signatures?

Thetwo principle purposes of biological intelligence are:

Todevelop human understanding of intelligent systems, through studyingdiverse ways via which neutrally-based systems integrate with humanbehavior.

Biologicalintelligence can be used in the design of intelligent devices.

Describeand give two examples from the readings of materials acquisitionintelligence collection

Thereare several methods through which intelligence is collected. Twoexamples are:

HUMINT:Human Intelligence is basically the collection of intelligence fromhumans. Until the mid-twentieth century, it was the oldest method ofintelligence collection. It is used by many governments as theprimary source of intelligence.

MASINT:this is the type of intelligence where information is obtainedthrough qualitative and quantitative analysis of data. Examples ofthis data collection technique are radar intelligence and nuclearintelligence.

Discussfour surprising &quotfinds&quot as a result of the MiG-25 Foxbatacquisition.

Itwas believed that the MiG-25 Foxbat was an eagle air combat jet.While in the true sense it was an interceptor.

ThisMiG-25 Foxbat was assembled haphazardly in order to counter the USSRjet.

MiG-25Foxbat was built not built on aluminum but a nickel alloy.

MiG-25Foxbat majority avionics were based on poor technology of the vacuumtube and not solid electronics as required.


Clark,R. (2014). IntelligenceCollection(Vol. 1st Edition). New York: Congressional Quarterly Press.

Dolliver,B. (2012). CreativeIntelligence Gathering.AIMR Conference Proceedings, 8-15.

Edwards,E. (2010). Darwin`sCamera: Art and Photography in the Theory of Evolution.Photography and Culture, 363-365.

Newburn,T. (2011). Criminology.Cullompton: Willan Pub.