Psychology Psychology

PSYCHOLOGY 5

Psychology

Psychology

Psychologyis thestudyof behaviorsandmentalprocessesanddatesbackto theancientcivilizationsof Greek, Egypt among others. Among theearliestpsychologicalthoughtwerefrom Plato (387 BC), whosuggestedthatthebrainwasthemechanismof mentalprocesses(Schultz, &amp Schultz, 2011). Later,in 1774 AD,Aristotle suggestedthattheheart,not thebrain,wasthemechanismof theheart.Despite thesetraditionalfoundations,formalpsychologydatesbackto Wilhelm Wundt, a German,whoopenedthefirstpsychologicallaboratoryin Leipzig. Due to thissignificantandboldmove,Wilhelm Wundt is consideredthefatherof psychology.Hewasone of thespiritedspeakersof his timeto debateover whatconstitutedpsychology.Later,in 1883, Stanley Hill establishedthefirstpsychologicallaboratoryat John Hopkins University, thefirstin theUS (Schultz, &amp Schultz, 2011). Thisarticleexemplifiesthehistoryof psychology,outliningthevariousschoolsof thoughtsof psychology.

Thefirstschoolof thoughtin Psychology, thestructuralistsschoolof thought,owesits tenetsto Wilhelm Wundt, thefatherof psychology.However,itis Edward B. Titchener,a studentof Wundt, whoformally establishedthisschoolof thoughtin 1890s. Theperspectivesof thistheoryarecenteredon investigatingthestructureof themind,breakingdown consciousnessto its basicelementssoas to understandits operations.However,theideaof breakingconsciousnessinto themainelementswasveryabstract,leadingtothe developmentof functionalism schoolof thoughtin 1890s. Thefunctionalistschoolof thoughtisattributedto American scholar,William James. Thetheory,as opposedto thestructuraltheory,aimedat studyinghowthemindoperated,ratherthan its structure.Functionalism theoryhas enjoyedwideinfluencethan anyothertheoryin psychologysince itattemptsto describethoughtsandtheir influenceon individuals,without judgingreasonsforsuchinfluences(Schultz, &amp Schultz, 2011). Thetheoryhadsignificantimpactson contemporarypsychology,outliningthevariouswaysof acquiringpsychologicaldata. Theoveremphasis of Factionalismpsychologyonthe mentalprocessledto thedevelopmentof Psychoanalysis schoolof thoughtin 1890s. ThePsychoanalysis schoolof thoughtwaschampionedby psychologistssuchas Sigmund Freud, whounlike otherstructuralpsychologistsdelvedin studyingcovertbehaviors.Heattributedmenbehaviorsas a resultof theconsciousmindandotherfactorsoutside man’sconsciousness,which hereferredto as motivesandimpulses.Thiswasa significantdevelopmentin psychologistswhocamelaterdirectlyorindirectlyinfluencedby thetenetsof his theory(Schultz, &amp Schultz, 2011).

Later,thebehavioristschoolof thoughtwasdevelopedin 1913, by psychologistssuchas B.F. Skinner andJohn B. Watson, whopostulatedthatmanbehaviorscan onlybescientificallyscrutinized.Thetheorypredisposedthatcovertbehaviorspostulatedby Psychoanalysts didnot contributeto humanbehaviorssince theywould not bescientificallyproven.ThispavedwayfortheGestalt physiological schoolof thoughtin 1935. TheGestalt schoolof thoughtproposesthatpsychologyshould studyhumanexperiencesholistically, ratherthan in separate elementscontendedby thestructuralistsandfunctionalists theories.Gestalt psychologistssuchas Max Wertheimer extensivelyworkedon humancognition,thinking,andperceptionsamong otherelementswhich theyfeltconstitutedelementsof psychology(Schultz, &amp Schultz, 2011). In 1954, Humanistic Psychologytookshape,championed by psychologistssuchas Carl Rogers,whowerediscontented by psychoanalysisandBehaviorism schoolof thought.TheHumanistic psychologistspostulatedthathumanbehaviorcould be understoodby examiningtherelationshipbetween stimuliandresponsesto thosestimuli.Thiswasreplacedby thecognitive psychologyin 1956, developedby psychologistssuchas George A. Miller (Schultz, &amp Schultz, 2011).

Asaforestated,psychologyinvolvesthestudyof humanbehaviorsandhas its foundationto ancientcivilizationssuchas theancientGreek. Thefatherof formalpsychologyis consideredto be Wilhelm Wundt, wholaidthebasisforstructuralistschoolof thought.Otherschoolsof thoughtsthat havedevelopedsince thenincludethefunctionalism, theGestaltpsychology,psychoanalysis,behaviorism andtheHumanistic psychologicalschoolof thought.Evennow,there are newtheoriesbeingdeveloped,with newideasandtopicsbeingexplored,owingto theexpansiveness of thefield.

Reference

Schultz,D. P., &amp Schultz, S. E. (2011). Ahistory of modern psychology(10thed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.