POST CLASSICAL WORLD 4
Post-classicalrefers to the period that came after the classical period. It isimportant to understand the classical societies, and this refers toChina, India and Rome. So when we are talking about post-classicalsocieties we are looking to China, Rome and India (Book_Liu).
Thephrase means that a common silk road connected the three that isChina India and Greece. Trade during this period was well andprovided healthy motives. Soon, after 400 hundred years the threeempires collapsed leaving a wide gap in the operations of trade. Itis in this period that China, Byzantine and Abbasid took over trade(Book_Liu).
Thethree countries had a common silk road that joined them and this theyhad in common. Initially, we are told of the famous Kushans who weregood Buddhists and controlled the trade and also built an empire thatcrossed the central and east of Asia. It was strategic in that itmade it possible for the Kushans to regulate the trade through theSilk Road. The wealth obtained from the flourishing trade enabled theBuddhists to expand their religious territories. Buddhism spread toChina and other areas through the Silk Road (Book_F-A.).
Buddhistsused religion for creating wealth, and this made them prosperous inChina. We got informed of a case where initially the Buddha used tobeg for food with his follower and a meal a day was enough. Soonafterwards, things took a different direction, and the Buddha couldbe fed by the people since they could not till the land (Module).
Thequestion of Mongols on China is of great interest in this study.Initially, the Mongols were herders and horsemen. Later on, they gotrecruitment from some of the leaders who wanted power, and thischanged them to raiders. They could raid people, destroy crops killanimals. However as time passed by this changed to something newwhere now they could spare some of the plunder in a raid. The Mongolsbecame stronger due to their interaction with well-establishedcommunities that gave them empowerment in terms of trade, and thismade the Mongols stronger (Book_Liu).
However,it is worrying of how the Mongols presence grew beyond imaginationwith such a small time lapse. In the Steppes, we are aware that therewere numerous instances of violence and as explained in this context(Book_Liu).
Oneof the reasons is that the west of the Russian slopes there was acold spell that made it hard for the crops to grow. It is for thisreason that the Mongols had to rage wars among the neighboringcommunities as the searched for better fields to grow crops (module).
Secondly,the Mongols were nomads and as such they required pasture fields fortheir livestock. Now due to the population pressure they had to lookfor bigger fields and greener pastures for their livestock(Book_F-A.). As such they had to exploit and search for lands thatalready occupied, and this created wars between the Mongols and theplaces they inhabited as pasture lands.
TheMongols led a very nomadic life where they relied on their horses anda mare. The mare was important in that it provide milk to the Mongolswhile the horse could be pierced to provide blood. The Mongol reliedmainly on blood from the living horses, and this made sure the stockof their livestock was still intact (Book_F-A.).
TheMongols were blood suckers, and this made them distinguishable fromother people. Drinking was also part of their entertainment wherethey used the mare’s fermented milk as a drink to intoxicate them.The Mongols also offered some libations to appease the ancestralspirits due to their victory in wars as successful raiders(Book_Liu).
Theoccupation of China by the Mongols is a great deal in this study. TheChinese empire was the largest, however the Mongols made it andconquered the Chinese (Book_Liu). China waged resistance for the longest time in the history of the Mongols as Raiders to thefollowing two reasons. The song Empire had a strong empire with astrong army.
Anarmy that could penetrate into the interior and manipulate thecommunications network and this troubled the Mongols for a long time.Another reason is that the Song Empire had paddy fields where ricegrew. The paddy fields made it hard for the horses to walk in thefields for war. As a result, the resistance of the Song Empire took alonger time than expected (module).
However,after staging various battles soon, the tyranny of the Mongols cameto a halt after the Mamluk of Egypt took over. The Mamluks wasinitially the slaves in Egypt. They had got captured while young andenergetic and as such they portrayed a good standing army in future(module).
Howeverat around 12th century the greatest battle ever recorded in thehistory took place. It was the battle between the Mamluks and theMongols and the Mamluk won and took over Egypt. The tyranny of theMongols thus got limited in Egypt (Book_Liu).