Metabolismand the Urinary System
Metabolismand the urinary system
Ketosis refers to the metabolic procedure, which happens when thebody suffers from low levels of glucose beneficial for the release ofenergy (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew, 2015). In this regards,ketone bodies, which results from the breakdown of stored fats supplythe energy needed by the body. Ketone body metabolism changes freefatty acids into solvable substrates that are stress-free totransport and metabolize. Ketone bodies are formed when acetyl-CoA isconverted into acetone, acetoacetate, and beta-hydroxybutyrate, whichcollectively form ketone bodies in a process called citric acid cycle(Martini et al., 2015). The ketone bodies are then transported toother tissues such as the heart and brain where they are convertedback to acetyl-CoA to provide energy. During ketosis, the body doesnot have enough levels of glucose hence, ketosis occurs when one’sbody requires energy but it lacks enough glucose to supply theenergy. As such, Martini et al. (2015) assert that a low level ofinsulin, a high level of insulin, or a low carb diet or insufficientlevels of carbohydrates in the body result to the production ofketone. Ketosis is an imperative evolutionary benefit to one’s bodyas it inhibits hypoglycemia and feed the brain using ketones. Duringa low carb diet, the production of ketone bodies lead to dietaryketosis, a mild physiological state. These bodies flow toextra-hepatic tissues such as the brain from the liver to provideenergy, which frees glucose metabolism. In fact, the bodies are veryworthy respiratory fuels unlike glucose. In this regards, the bodiesmay have therapeutic effects on diseases ensuing from hypoxia, freeradical damage, and substrate deficiency or insulin resistance.However, the ketone bodies can cause ketoacidosis, a severecomplication of diabetes mellitus when produced in mass number. Inthis case, the body produces acetoacetic and 3-hydroxybutyric acidsquickly, which results to high absorptions of protons, devastatingthe body’s acid-base shielding system.
Protein catabolism is the process where cellular peptidases andproteases break proteins into amino acids. Martini et al. (2015)contend that during the process, various proteases and peptidasesbreak proteins into amino acids, which are then immersed by the smallintestine and sent by the hepatic portal vein to the liver. The acidsare then deaminated in the liver, in a process which removes nitrogenfrom the acids to form urea thus, a negative nitrogen balance.
Role of liver inglucose metabolism
The liver plays an imperative role in the metabolism of numerousfunctions in the body such as the regulation of glycogen storage:plasma glucose absorption is the outcome of peripheral glucoseabsorption and liver production. The liver takes excess glucoseentering the blood after meals and sequester it as glycogen (Martiniet al., 2015). In cases of low glucose, the liver triggers other wayswhich result to the depolymerization of glycogen. In addition, theliver synthesizes new glucose from non-hexose carbs and amino acids.During metabolism, numerous hormones such as insulin, growth hormone,glucagon, catecholamine, and cortisol complement the control ofglucose metabolism in the liver. In the hepatocyte, the exploitationand preservation of glucose as glycogen and lipid is stimulated byinsulin while inhibiting glucose separation and discharge (Martini etal., 2015). This process is attained through a harmonized control ofenzymes where insulin rouses the manifestation of genes encodingfatty acids and glycolytic while constraining the manifestation ofthose encoding gluconeoginic enzymes. On the other hand, duringabsorptive state glucose is enters into the blood or changed into fatand glycogen while some enters the liver and used as a source ofenergy. The liver also uses amino acids to produce plasma proteinsduring this state.
Organs of theurinary system
The urinarystructure denotes the structure that conduct the formation andexcretion of urine. The system consists of the two kidneys, wherekidney nephrons i.e. small components in the kidney produces orcreates urine, which then moves through the systems of the nephronsand into the collecting duct. Apart from creating urine, the kidneyalso filtrates the blood, which allow the control of water absorption(Martini et al., 2015). The urinary system controls the electrolytebalance i.e. sodium, calcium, and potassium ions as well as controlsthe acid-base homeostasis. In addition, it regulates blood capacityand preserves blood pressure. The antidiuretic hormone (ADH)maintains water in the body and contract the blood vessels whilevasopressin controls the body’s preservation of water. The twohormones are involved in the control of blood volume andconcentrations.
Kidneys: a human body has two kidneys responsible for regulatingblood pressure and stimulating erythropoietin responsible forstimulating the formation of blood cells. They also remove excesswater and clean the blood off wastes.
Ureters: The two ureters connect the kidney to the urinary bladder.Urine created in the kidney passes through the ureter and into thebladder.
Urinary bladder: The bladder is the storage organ for urine
Urethra: It transports urine from the urinary bladder to the outside.
Major processesin urine formation
Filtration: This comprises the transmission of solvable constituentssuch as waste and water from the plasma into the glomerulus
Reabsorption: This comprises the immersion of ions, particles, andwater essential for the body to preserve homeostasis from theglomerular deposit back into the blood.
Secretion: This process involves the transmission of creatinine,hydrogen ions, and drugs from the blood into the collecting tube.
Creatinine refers to the waste product generated unceasingly duringordinary muscle breakdown while creatinine clearance test refers tothe test that check the renal process by analyzing the degree ofcreatinine clearance thus, checking the capacity of the kidney tosift blood. The test helps proffer essential information on theefficiency of the kidney by comparing the creatinine intensities inthe blood with those in the urine. The test requires a blood andurine samples (Martini et al., 2015). The test can be done bymeasuring the quantity of creatinine existing in a sample of urinegathered over 24 hours, which requires an individual to urinateexclusively for one day. Doctors can also carry out the test throughGFR where a doctor uses a sole blood level of creatinine and thenenter the blood into a formulation such as age, race, gender, andbody size. The 24 hour test is noninvasive, easy to execute, does notcause agony, and is not associated with any risk, but it requires oneto collect urine at specific times and one should keep the containercontaining the urine refrigerated. The filtering units in the kidneyremove and clear creatinine thus, the test estimates GFR (glomerularfiltration rate) efficiently. The test is not accurate enough sincesome creatinine is derived from the proximal tubular secretion, whichoverestimates GFR. Calculating 24-hour creatinine clearance toevaluate GFR is not more dependable than assessing GFR from aforecast equation (Martini et al., 2015). The test is valuablefor evaluation of total elimination of nitrogen, electrolytes, andother elements. The test, however, provides valuable information forthe evaluation of GFR in people with unique dietary intake or musclemass, where a person requires a dialysis, or in the assessment ofnutritional and diet status.
Martini, F. H., Nath, J. L., & Bartholomew, E. F. (2015).Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology (Tenth ed). Pearson