MANAGEMENT:MOTIVATION THEORISTS AND THEORIES IMPLEMENTED IN AN ORGANIZATION
Gettingemployees to do their work, even in the most challenging ofcircumstances, is one of the most slippery and enduring jobs amanager has to deal with. Indeed, identifying what best motivates anindividual remains a centuries-old puzzle. Even among the most knowninfluential thinkers on human behavior, including Adam Smith, AbrahamMaslow, Sigmund Freud, and Aristotle, they all struggled to decipherthe nuance behind it and at the same time trying hard to explain thereason why people do what they do. In present day world, managershave attempted to boost motivation among his or her employees haverealized that it is hard to argue this accepted wisdom, while theytry to back it up with empirical evidence that motivated employees,therefore representing better performance in the organization. It hasbeen accepted widely that motivation serves as a primary notion tothe driver of behavior. Human motivation theories describe motivationto be effectively laden with anticipations that guide behaviorstoward performance-based situations. The purpose of this reporttherefore is to discuss theories of motivation, assess techniquesthat are used to implement these theories, determine and demonstratethe effectiveness of implementation of these theories in theorganization, and finally to prepare a range of recommendations ofthese techniques.
Management:Motivation Theorists and theories
Tobegin with, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs presents a theory inpsychology that is presented in a pyramid shape, with the mostfundamental and largest of the needs at the bottom, while that ofself-actualization is placed at the top. According to Ross (2008, p.90), while the pyramid has since been known to be as the de factomethod of representing the hierarchy, Maslow himself did not use thepyramid to explain all these levels anywhere in his works, on thesubject. The basic and most fundamental four layers presented on thepyramid has what Maslow termed it as “the deficiency of needs” orthe “d-needs” self-esteem, love and friendship, physical needs,and security.
Maslowclaim that that when all these “lacking needs” are not met, onlywith the exception of physiological need, which is known to befundamental, may not be any physical indication however, theindividual will sense a feeling of anxiety and tension (Sorrentino &Yamaguchi, 2008, p. 121). The theory also suggest that the basiclevel of needs have to be met before the individual begin to desirestrongly what has been place at the higher level of hierarchicalneeds. “Metamotivation” was coined by Maslow to describemotivation of individuals in an organizational setting that goesbeyond their scope of acquiring basic needs, at the same timestriving for constant betterment. In addition, Thomas (2000, p. 88)argues that brain and human mind is complex with parallel processesthat runs at the same time therefore, different levels ofmotivations from Maslow’s hierarchy, may take part at the sametime. Maslow clearly spoke about these four levels with satisfactionsin such terms as “general”, “primarily”, and “relative”instead of claiming that individuals pay attention to specific needsat any given time. Maslow therefore acknowledge the possibility ofthese motivation levels occurring at specific times in the minds ofindividuals, but he remained focused on identifying basicmotivational types that they should occur in a particular order(Latham, 2007, p. 81).
Secondly,Herzberg was behind the Motivator-Hygiene Theory of job satisfaction,also known as two-factor theory (Thomas, 2000, p. 89). According toHerzberg, individuals are known to be influenced easily by twodifferent set of factors. Herzberg toyed with the idea that hygienefactors will not act as motivators, but the absence of it can alsolower motivation in an organization. Such factors may be anythingfrom comfortable chairs and clean toilets, to a more reasonableamount of pay and improved job security. Hertzberg was convinced thatmotivational factors may not necessarily reduce the level ofmotivation however, it can be the reason behind increase inmotivation. Such factors may involve possibility for promotion, jobrecognition, or even work. According to Ross (2008, p. 96), oneadvantage to Herzberg theory is that it identifies these models,therefore helps managers to attempt to counteract demotivatingeffecting in their organization through communication and reassuranceto employees. However, its advantage is that the model is moregeneralized to a point that it is not appropriate to all types ofemployees in an organization.
Thirdly,McGregor’s “The Human Side of Enterprise” is a book that theauthor came up with that has an approach for creation of anenvironment, whereby employees are easily motivated throughdirection, authoritative and integration or control, and thus hereferred it to as theory X and Y, respectively. McGregor coined theterms, Theory X and Y, and used these sets of beliefs that a managercould hold origins of individuals’ behaviors. McGregor pointed outthat the behavior of the manager may largely be determined byparticular beliefs that his or her employees exhibits and can bemotivated with. McGregor believed that his literary works enableleaders in an organization adopt the two sets, invent others, belief,and test the assumptions in order to establish managerial strategies(Sorrentino & Yamaguchi, 2008, p. 123). The advantage of usingMcGregor’s theory is that it helps a manager to concentrate on hisor her thoughts based on ways that individuals concentrate, relate,and handle their jobs. On the other hand, the theory is disadvantagedsince it is flawed, and thus his conclusions were not a betterrepresentative of a better motivator in an organizational setting.
Fourthly,Alderfer came with a theory that he developed further from Maslow’shierarchy of needs. He categorized the hierarchy to fit his ERGtheory. Existence of the group is responsible with providingrequirements to basic existence of human beings. Alderfer includedthe things that Maslow himself regarded to as safe needs andphysiological. The second group is relatedness, in which people’sdesires are for maintenance of interpersonal relationships (Latham,2007, p. 69). Alderfer isolated growth needs, which is an intrinsicsense of desire for personal improvement. This theory is advantageoussince it does not ignore specific needs that have to be satisfiedbefore the others however, the theory does not lose the company’smotivational impact of the employees, but in the employeesthemselves.
TechnoInc. is an organization that aims at achieving its goals, and to dothis, everybody in the organization have to be motivated. In order todo this, the Techno Inc. must be in a position to implement thetechniques of the aforementioned theories. To begin with, the managerin the Techno Inc. Company must have status to various interpersonalrelationships, in which it has to have easy access to the informationthat facilitates easy assessment of these theories. In turn,organization enables the manager devise strategies, implementactions, and make decisions. Techno Inc. uses techniques that areaimed at eliciting motivation among the employees. Such techniquesare: The reward system, culture, job design, and resource-allocationand performance management techniques.
TechnoInc. uses the reward system technique to discriminate betweenemployee’s poor and good performances, while it offers the bestemployees opportunities to advance. Techno Inc. introduced thetechnique that held the managers accountable for specific goals whileit motivates employees by rewarding good performance in the company.Again, the company has introduced pay-for-performance system, whichis based on group or individual metrics, which is in correspondentwith Herzberg theory.
TechnoInc. uses culture technique for effective way of bonding throughhierarchical needs in the organization. From the executives down tothe managers then the employees, Techno Inc. created a culture thatvalues teamwork, openness, collaboration, and friendship as part ofintegrating Marlow’s Theory of needs. This technique created newstructure that encouraged employees to form new bonds and needs. Itwas observed after the technique was embraced that the employeesstarted to report routinely that the overall management and managercares for them, and that they have started caring about each other,which was evident by a sense of belonging and teamwork.
Accordingto Sorrentino & Yamaguchi (2008, p. 126), McGregor pointed outthat the behavior of the manager may largely be determined byparticular beliefs that his or her employees exhibits. This could beattached with a job design technique. The drive to comprehend isaddressed best designing of jobs that interesting, challenging, andmeaningful. For instance, Techno Inc. advanced success of the companyby fulfilment of the drive to attach, at the same time, challenge itsemployees into thinking broadly on the manner in which theycontribute to making changes for customers, investors, and coworkers.McGregor’ theory also determines the direction in which employees’level of motivation could propel them into improving their job levelsand skills, and meeting the company’s goals.
TechnoInc. has managed to achieve its set target goals throughimplementation of the above motivational theories. This will beexamined by demonstrating the effectiveness of the implementation bylooking into how Techno Inc. has embraced these theories by turningit into employee motivators. According to Ross (2008, p. 98), feworganizations are aware of the value of employees and believe thatthey are their main assets, which can drive their companies tolong-term success. In essence, employee or human resource in theTechno Inc. Company are regarded as the most important assets, andthat there is need to persuade and motivate them towards fulfillmentof tasks. Latham (2007, p. 111) cautions that for every organizationthat recording any degree of meaningful achievement while pursuingits aspirations and goals must have the ability to create enoughmotivation in order to cater for the burden imposed by on itsemployees.
Theabove mentioned motivational theories have been embraced in a numberof organizations, including Techno Inc. Company. In McGregor’stheory for instance, a number of organizations have since embracedthis theory by ensuring that there is a sense of commitment and aspirit of cooperation within the sphere of the organization’sinfluence. This is implemented effectively by ensuring that employeesare will paid since money is considered as the major fundamentalfactor of motivation. According to Thomas (2000, p. 76), no otherform of incentive or motivational technique comes even closer inrespect to its influential value. Moreover, Techno Inc. haveeffectively implemented these motivational theories by offeringdiverse forms of motivation such as other incentives as good workingcondition, a chance to develop and grow, and job security.
Inorder to improve the implementation of the above mentioned techniquesin future, in the Techno Inc. Company should first choose the methodof implementation. The company should decide whether the chosenmotivational methods require supervisors that dole out punishment andrewards, the quality-assurance monitor for accessing completed work,the managers that set up organization’s goals, or the accountingsystem that distributes bonuses. Secondly, Techno Inc. should come upwith a system that facilitates communication for the new motivationalengagements to managers and employees.
Finally,in order to make motivational theories more practical, Techno Inc.should devise way of measuring their effects. Pick appropriatemeasurements, for example, the percentage increase in employees’salaries and sales, improve the ratings for the customers’ servicesurveys, percentage increase in the company’s productivity, anddecrease the amount of waste in form of raw materials.
LATHAM,G. P. (2007). Workmotivation history, theory, research, and practice.Thousand Oaks, Calif, Sage Publications.http://site.ebrary.com/id/10387913.
ROSS,B. H. (2008).The psychology of learning and motivation advances in research andtheory.London, Academic Press.http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&scope=site&db=nlebk&db=nlabk&AN=230789.
SORRENTINO,R. M., & YAMAGUCHI, S. (2008). Handbookof motivation and cognition across cultures.San Diego, CA, Academic.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/book/9780123736949.
THOMAS,K. W. (2000). Intrinsicmotivation at work building energy & commitment.San Francisco, Berrett-Koehler Publishers.http://www.books24x7.com/marc.asp?isbn=1576750876.