Lesson1 and Lesson 9
Question1: Whatis the origin of the term “folklore”?
Theterm folklore is a compound noun composed of two distinct words, folkand lore. The term describes both the study matter of traditionalknowledge and the study of traditional knowledge. Folk is anadjective that refers to culturally expressed materials such ascustoms, skills and thinks that are learned informally in aparticular society. These materials are acquired through interactionsand word of mouth rather than schools and other formal learningenvironments. They define the culture of a particular society. Loreon the other hand refers to knowledge or experience gained in aninformal setting. Therefore, folklore refers to a combination of thetraditions of a society with the knowledge and wisdom.
Question2: Contrast the differences between the nineteenth-centuryperspective of folk as a level of culture and the “modern”viewof folk as a social process.
Throughouthistory, folklore plays an important part of human interactions, andtherefore an essential part of being human. However, in the 19thcentury, folklore was in the context of cultural scenes defining theculturally acceptable behaviors and expected traditions. They guidedindividuals on how religious, social and family issues. The folklorewas based solely on oral communication. However, the changes in themodern society have changed the dynamics of folks. Social processesin the modern world are dependent on computer based technology, whichhas created new folklores. A goof example is the language ofexpression in cell phones text messaging.
Question3: What is the difference in transmission between folk and popularculture?
Folkand popular cultures are transmitted differently. Folk refers tocultural materials defines the lifestyle of a localized society. Itis usually transmitted directly through oral traditions. Thetransmission has a strong sense of the homogeneous community. On theother hand, popular culture transmission involves ah heterogeneoussociety. The transmission involves invented custom in the moderncommunication technologies. The transmission of the popular cultureis dependent on connectivity of different societies.
Question1: Whatdo urban legends reveal from their content, according to Blank? Whomdo they "warn?"
Accordingto Blank, urban legend content main aim is to convince the readerthat there is a real threat and therefore they should take therecommended action. It relies on the ability of the message to hookand threaten the reader, and thus influence his or her behavior by“evoking their greed, sympathy or fear”. The legends warns thereaders that if they do not take the advice bestowed upon them, theyare bad things are likely to occur to them. The also warn the readersthat if the sender did not forward the message and therefore theyshould do the same.
Question2: Howhas the transmission of folk narratives changed (in form) since theInternet took over as a major contributor to the diffusion offolklore?
Thetransmission of folk narrative was traditionally restricted to theword of mouth. However, in the modern society, the traditions andexpressive cultures are transmitted through technologies such as theinternet. For example, the internet and other computer technologiesplay a major role in the transmission of globalism, corporate controland consumerisms in the modern society. This means that transmissionof folklore has thrived in the internet age. However, this haseliminated the local heritage characteristic of the folklore.
Question3: According to Howard, how do demons reveal themselves and how canbelievers combat them?
Thereare several ways through which demons reveals themselves tobelievers. In the European traditional folks, demons were associatedwith experiences such as “hearing voices or sounds in the houses”.These were referred to as “knocking or noisy ghosts”. Accordingto Howard, Christians have the ability to engage with the demons andcombat them through what he refers to as “deliverance ministries”.He argues that “lay ministers can call upon the holy spirit toconfront and defeat” the demons. After spiritual rebirth,individuals have the power of the Holy Spirit through which they candefeat demons. Spiritual warfare with demons may involve “bindingand loosing of demons, commanding demons aloud and the laying ofhands”.