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Labreport

Geometricdesign of a bypass

Bypassis constructedon theroadsoas to createmoretravelwaysin areassuchas cities,towns,andvillagesandalsoto reducethelevel of trafficjamandreducetrafficcongestions.Abypasshelpsto reducethelevel of interferenceof localtrafficmovements

Geometricdesignof thebypassis a highwayengineeringpartthat dealsare allabout placingtheroadway physicalelements,anditis donewith referenceto thestandardsandtheusingtheavailablefigurethat are takento be theconstants.Aprimaryaimof carryingout geometric designis to maximize safetyandefficiencyoptimally andalsoputtingtheprojectcostwhileputtinginto considerationthesafetyof theenvironmentandall its elements.

Theprimaryaimof carryingout a geometric designis to maximize theavailablelimitedspacesoas to reducethetrafficjamin congestedareaslike thecity,townsandtradingcentersthat accommodatemanycustomerslike thestudentsandothers differentkindsof transportmeans.

Thegeometric designhas three differentcategories,andtheseare crosssectionprofileandalignments.Puttingall thesegroupstogetherbringup thelayoutof theroadin thethree-dimensional view.RoadAlignment bringstogethertheseriesarrangementsof theroadwhilecombiningall thecurvesandhorizontaltangents on theroad.Profiledealswith thearrangementsvertically andtheseincludecurvesthat aresagged,crestandthelinesthat are straightandconnecttheprofilesof theroad.Roadcrosssectionhighlights theplacingandtheamountin numberof thetravellanesthattheroadshould have.Thelanesof theroadshowthetravelwayforthevehicle,bicyclesandmotorcyclesandpedestrians’walkways.Thecrosssectionhighlights thedrainagesystemsof theroadway, thestructureof thepavements(flexibleorrigid),theslopeof theroad,andotheritemsthat can beconsideredin thedesign.

Calculationsof horizontal curves (HC)

ForH_{}

R= _{}

Givenu = 75 m/s

e= tan _{}

and_{}= _{}

e= tan _{}

e= 0.7

_{}= 0.11

R= _{}

R= 463.4 ft

_{}= _{}

Given_{}=_{}

_{}= _{}

_{}= 1236.4 ft

_{}=_{}–_{}

But_{}=0

Therefore_{}–_{}= 0

_{}=_{}

_{}=_{}

_{}=618.2

_{}= _{}+ _{}

_{}= 618.2 + _{}

_{}= 1236.4 ft

ForH_{}

R= _{}

R= _{}

R= 463.4 ft

_{}= _{}

Given_{}=_{}

_{}= _{}

_{}= 1179.8 ft

_{}=9211.3 ft

_{}=_{}–_{}

_{}= 9211.3 –_{}

_{}= 8621.4 ft

_{}= _{}+ _{}

_{}= 8621.4+ _{}

_{}= 9801.2 ft

ForH_{}

R= _{}

Givenu = 75 m/s

e= tan _{}

and_{}= _{}

e= tan _{}

e= 1.19

_{}= 0.11

Given_{}=_{}

R= _{}

R= 288.1 ft

_{}= _{}

_{}= _{}

_{}= 568.2 ft

_{}=18053.5 ft

_{}=_{}–_{}

_{}=18053.5 –_{}

_{}=17769.4 ft

_{}= _{}+ _{}

_{}= 18053.5 + _{}

_{}= 18337.6 ft

ForH_{}

R= _{}

e= tan _{}

and_{}= _{}

e= tan _{}

e= 1.73

_{}= 0.11

Given_{}=_{}

R= _{}

R= 203.6 ft

_{}= _{}

_{}= _{}

_{}= 373.1ft

_{}=20938.1 ft

_{}=_{}–_{}

_{}=20938.1 –_{}

_{}=20751.6 ft

_{}= _{}+ _{}

_{}= 20938.1 + _{}

_{}= 21124.7 ft

Calculationsfor vertical curves

SSD= 1.47ut + _{}

Reactiontime = 2.5 s

Designspeed = 75 mph

SSD= 1.47×2.5×75 + _{}

SSD= 861.5 ft

S_{}L

A=_{}– _{}= 6

_{}= _{}

_{}= _{}

_{}= 2751.75 ft

S_{}L

_{}=2S – _{}

_{}= 2×861.56 – _{}

_{}= 1363.45

S_{}L

861.56_{}1363.45

EQUATIONS

PVI= Station of _{}elevation

PVC= PVI –_{}

PVT= PVI +_{}

_{}= 618.2 ft

_{}= 0

_{}= 1236.4

_{}=

_{}= 9801.2 ft

_{}= 12055 ft

_{}= 20931.8 ft

_{} = 20751.6 ft

_{} = 21124.7 ft

Socialimpactsof thebypass

Thesocialimpactof constructingthebypasswould havetheimpacton thesocialactivitiesof thepeoplesuchas thesettlementpattern,etc.Constructionof thebypassleadsto displacement of peoplefrom their originalplacesof residence.Movementof peoplecan leadto anotherimpactmoreespeciallyin adaptingto theconditionsof thenewenvironment.Suchdisplacement can leadto psychologicaltortureas itbecomesdifficultto adjustto theconditionof thenewhousesgivento peopledisplaced.

Constructionof theproject(bypass)leadsto displacement of communityservicesandthebusinessof thepeople.Itcan leadto leadto economichardshipas someof thedisplacedof businessesfinddifficultyin gettinga betterlocations.

Constructionof thebypasshas an effecton thecommunity.Thisimpactis eitherpositiveornegative.Thepositiveimpactis thatpeoplecan be relocated to theplacethat has goodsoilsforagriculture,has peace,etc. andthenegativeimpactis thatthepeoplecan be takento theplacethat has severeconditionsof living.

Constructionof a bypasshas theimpacton thelocalcommunitiesthat are receivingdisplacedpeople.Theimpactis thatthepopulationsof thereceivingcommunityincreasesdrastically within a shorttime.Suchdisplacement can leadto inflationof thereceivingplace,diseasesoutbreak due to growingpopulationagainst thefewhealthfacilities.

Economicpacts

Constructionof thebypassshall leadto a reductionin trafficjamadas a resultincreasein time-saving andhenceboostingbusiness.Theprojectdevelopmentshall leadto increasingin revenuegenerationto thegovernmentas theindustrywill increase,andpeoplewill paytaxesimposedon their activities.

Constructionof thebypassleadsto improvementin thetransportsystemsas since a newroadis alwaysexpectedto boasttransporthencereducingon transporthardship

Leadto a reductionin theaccidentscausedby trafficcongestionin townsandanybusycenters.

Constructionof thebypassshall leadto improvementof thecityortowndue to increasein thetraveling spaceandalsoreducingthetrafficnoisein town

Constructionof thenewprojectleadsto displacement of theecosystems especiallywhentheprojectpassesthrough thewetlands. Asa resultotheraquaticanimalslike frogs,fish,etc. are killedduring constructionof theproject.Killingsuchaquaticanimalsleadto a reductionin thetourism revenue

Constructionof thenewroadleadsto increasetheinvestmentssince transportplaysa crucialrolein thebusiness.After theconstructionof thenewroadproject,transportationcostshall reducethecostof productiontherefore,morerevenuewill be generated.Environmentalimpactof thebypass

Constructionof thenewroadleadsto environmentdegradationespeciallywherea lotof trees arecutwithoutreplacementto givewayforprojectimplementations. Itcan leadto thereductionin rainfall.

Constructionof thenewbypassleadsto dis-stabilization of thesoilprofileespeciallywheretheydiga borrow pitforgettinggravelandcoarseaggregates.Reducesthebeautyappearanceof theenvironmentespeciallyin placeswherebirdsgatheredon thetrees andanimalstaketheir timesduring resting, etc.

Constructionof thenewproject(bypass)leadsto pollutionof theenvironmentdue to dustbeinggenerated,smokefrom constructionmachinesandsoundpollutiondue to blasting of rocks.

WorkCited

Rogers,Martin. HighwayEngineering.Oxford, UK: Blackwell Pub, 2008. Print.