IntelligenceCollection Discussion Questions
Thereare two intelligence collection sources and they include literal andnonliteral (Dulles, 2006). Literal collection produces literalinformation and they include open source, human intelligence,communications intelligence and cyber collections. On the other hand,nonliteral includes imagery intelligence, electronic intelligence,foreign instrumentation systems, material collections and materialexploitation (Dulles, 2006). For the literal there is no specialtyrequired to exploit them after processing step but just languagetranslation, however, nonliteral needs acquisition of skills andexpertise to process and exploit.
Thedistinction is important as it helps in comprehension of where thecollection used by analysts comes from or even the specificorganization in which these collections resides in (Fay, 1995).Through the distinction, individuals are able to understand andidentify the functional manager for every type of collection. Forinstance, DIA and military collect more HUMINT as compared to CIA(Dulles, 2006).
Breakingthe duo in their different groups is of sense as they have to bejudged differently. A case in point is that literal intelligence isof great importance in determination of intent as well as carries outpredictive analysis while nonliteral cannot carry out the two(determination of intent and predictive analysis). The delineationof the literal and nonliteral is essential as it guides in makingassessment (Fay, 1995). This is significant because of the biasesthat arise from the two. For sure, literal collection must seek touse translators while nonliteral must use the processor judgment.
Oneelement of system approach in understanding literal and nonliteral isthe level of expertise involved. If more expertise is needed then itis literal, however, if less or no expertise is required then it isnonliteral. The elements are important as they assist incomprehension of the two information sources.
Dulles,A. (2006). Craft of Intelligence: America`s Legendary Spy Master onthe Fundamentals of Intelligence Gathering for a Free World (Vol.2584). Rowman & Littlefield.
Fay,M. E. (1995). An Analysis of Hyperspectral Imagery Data CollectedDuring Operation Desert Radiance. NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREYCA.
Theindicators and intelligence requirements are closely related as theindicators help in successful collection of information. Thecollection plan is integral as it helps in understanding which branchof security deals with what kind of information (Betts, 1978). Theexecution of their tasks is thus done efficiently with no roleduplication. In order to have quality indicators there is need toimprove the technology used and decentralize the systems efficientlyas much as possible (Johnson, 2002). For quality, the competitionthat arises between the intelligence department and law enforcers forboth resources and focus has to be adequately addressed.
Betts,R. K. (1978). Analysis, war, and decision: Why intelligence failuresare inevitable. World Politics, 31(01), 61-89.
Johnson,L. K. (2002). Bombs, bugs, drugs, and thugs: Intelligence andAmerica`s quest for security. NYU Press.
Thearticle under study is intelligence organization before and during awar (1874) from<https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/kent-csi/vol7no4/pdf/v07i4a15p.pdf>
Thearticle explores the specifics of intelligence departments before andafter war. According to the article it is paramount thatintelligence department knows what the enemy does right from the timewar breaks to the time peace is made (Wolseley, 1886). Thusinformation gathered by the department is significant throughout theprocess. Thus any spy chief who is ignorant about the informationdetails is ignorant to their career (Bamford, 1983). Thus before warit is necessary that soldiers are sent to collect information as itis easily done during the peaceful days (Herman, 1996).
Thecommander has a role of obtaining information when the soldiers areon the battlefield and this is done through prisoners, deserters,intercepting letters and mails and cutting off the telecommunicationcables. Those fit to carry out such missions include the middle agedindividuals who are of sound mind. The other major category is spyand its management. The accuracy of information given by the spies isintegral as most do not give truthful information (Herman, 1996). Theproblem arises because understanding the motive of the spies isdifficult as some serve as patriots while others serve because ofmoney factor and others for both reasons. The article further goesahead and identifies prisoners and peasants as source of informationfor intelligence. According to this article, the key things thatintelligence departments should be aware of include deception andcollation.
Observationsand Lessons Learnt
Thearticle is provides essentials that are critical for any intelligencedepartments. From the article, it is paramount to have informationabout your enemy prior to and at the time of battlefield and theofficers need to treat any piece of information importantly.Additionally, the role of information collection is done at differentstages by different individuals with soldiers being sent to gatherinformation prior to war commander collects information on thebattlefield. The other main sources of information identified in thisarticle include prisoners and deserters. Important to the success ofthe mission is the information accuracy especially from spies. Theother main things include collation and deception which can eithermake or break the mission. The intelligence officers need to reportto their seniors in writing the information they collect from thejunior officers. Spies are a source of deception and the departmentsshould be aware of the issue and come up with mechanisms to deal withthem for their success in mission execution.
Herman,M. (1996). Intelligence power in peace and war. Cambridge UniversityPress.
Wolseley,G. W. (1886). The soldier`s pocket-book for field service. Macmillanand Company
Question4-Features of Successful Intelligence
Forevery intelligence department to operate smoothly there are a numberof issues that should be adhered to and well understood by itsoperatives. One is that trust is paramount in carrying outintelligence and any officer appointed to the said duty must betrustworthy so as truthful information is obtained(Bamford,1983). Additionally, there is need to be wary with the enemy as theyare at center stage of every battle. Enough information regarding theactivities of the enemy is crucial for successful execution of amission. Additionally, the officers should be aware of deception andcollation in their operations (Betts,2013). Getting these basics ensures that there is successfulexecution of a mission.
Bamford,J. (1983). The Puzzle Palace: Inside the National Security Agency,America`s Most Secret Intelligence Organization. Granite HillPublishers.
Betts,R. K. (2013). Enemies of intelligence: Knowledge and power inAmerican national security. Columbia University Press.