Running head: Grand Nursing Theories 1
Grand nursing theoriescomprises of ideas that are global and very complex .It has thewidest scope and exhibit the most philosophical stage of growth, itlooks into a broad experience of concern within the practice. Thistheory does not set modalities to form specific interventions innursing instead, it offers a broad framework for creating biggerabstract concepts. These theories must be the same with all validtheories rules and regulations. However, like any other valid theorythey leave room for unanswered questions that require investigation(Butts & Rich, 2013). This paper will analyze self-care theoryand human becoming theory. In addition, it will discuss the maincomponents of these theories and their strengths and weaknesses.
Self-care theory,introduced by Dorothea E.Orem aimed at improving quality of nursingspecifically in general hospitals. The theory brings togetherdifferent ideas that help to solve a problem in different ways. Thistheory is simple and flexible since it can apply to differentpatients. Nurses can use this theory as a guide to improve theirservices (Alligood, 2013).
This theory is dividedinto three parts namely theories of self-care, self-care deficit andnursing system. The theory of self-care mainly focuses on where anindividual is supposed to take care of himself to ensure good healthand well-being. To have good health, one must observe a certaindiscipline for instance maintain substantial consumption of food,water and air. Secondly, one should balance his daily activities suchas work, sleep and rest. Thirdly, one should prevent hazards to humanlife and promote human performance. Self-care deficit theory explainswhen nursing is required. It is needed when an adult cannot meet hispersonal needs of self-care. This theory helps one to know how he canguide, help and support people in need. The third part of the theorynursing systems, explains how a nurse takes care of the patient need(Butts & Rich, 2013).
One of the maincomponents of the theory is that people should be self-dependant andresponsibly take care of themselves and other family members in need.It states that people are different from each other. The theoryassumes that nursing is a result of two or more people comingtogether. This helps in achieving global and developing self-careneeds successfully which helps in primary care and preventingdiseases. Another component is ensuring self-care discipline in anindividual that require knowledge of potential health problems.Within a social cultural context, one can learn self and dependentcare behaviors (Alligood, 2013).
The theory is importantbecause it provides a guide that helps in the field of nursing.Secondly, it helps an individual to know when nursing is required. Inaddition, it has significant information that helps in nursingcurriculum, administrating education and nursing research. Moreover,the concepts of the theory are in consistent with concepts of healthpromotion and maintenance. However, the theory has disadvantages,first it is illness oriented. Second health care is always changingand cannot rely on to one concept over time.
Human becoming theorywas developed by Dr. Parse aims at guiding nurses to concentrate onthe quality of life. This theory measure the quality of life from anindividual point of view as the aim of nursing practice. Itconcentrates on human-universe and health process, the theory isunique because of how it explains the paradox of human becoming. Itmainly focuses on the relationship between human and environment(Alligood, 2013).
The first component ofthe theory focuses on human it states that individual play thebiggest role in defining their destiny. It argues that human beingsmake decisions on how to behave this makes them culpable of thechoices they make in life. Another component states that everyindividual is different from one another. This is because their wayof doing things differs from looks and various personalcharacteristics. This theory believes that an individual is capableof changing and become a better person (Butts & Rich, 2013).
The second componentis based on becoming it states that becoming is a free process forall humans it is growth that is directed to make on individual morediverse. The things that attract and separate us from the environmentchange us and make us who we are. Health is putting into use theideas individual chose to follow. Becoming is achieving beyond theactual to possible through numerous changes. As such, changes anindividual completely because he does not return to the old ways(Alligood, 2013).
The theory has itsadvantages firstly, it distinguishes nursing from other practices.Secondly, it can help while carrying out research. Moreover, it has aframe work that guide while learning other theories. However, it hasshortcomings namely it fails to utilize nursing processes.Additionally, it is not quantifiable making it difficult to comparewith previous research study.
In conclusion, nursingtheories are significant because they help one decide what he knowsand what he needs to know. They explain, describe and predictphenomena of nursing. As such, it helps nursing profession maintainits boundaries.
Butts, J. B., Bandhauer, D., & Rich, K. L. (2013). Philosophiesand theories for advanced nursing practice. Jones & BartlettPublishers.
Alligood, M. R. (Ed.). (2013). Nursing theorists and their work.Elsevier Health Sciences.