Inthe recent past, globalization has become a key part in thedevelopment of countries, regions and democracies among other sectorsacross the globe. This is mainly promoted by the raised levels oftechnological development such as the discovery of the World Wide Webwhich has resulted to advanced applications like social media amongothers (Bhugra &Mastrogianni, 2003). As a result, globalizationcan be seen as movement which is characterized by raised levels offlow in information, individual, money as well as commodity givingrise to notable changes left in their wakes. It is notable that,globalization has had impacts such as cross cultural amalgamation,interchange of knowledge in several fields, which include mentalhealth. This is based on the premise that, good health is a centralframe in the development as well as growth of any nation. It isnotable that, there have been a lot of arguments as well ascounter-arguments on whether globalization have had an impact onmental health, especially resulting from the supercharged rate ofchanges which is taking place in the society (Cheema, Kalra &Bhugra,2010).
can be regarded as the process whereby traditional boundaries whichare separating societies and individuals recede gradually. It isclear that, globalization entails more than the raised levels ofinterconnectedness where advancement in the field of communicationhave resulted to movement of ideas, and this is despite the existingvariations in economic, social as well as the cultural spheres(Bhugra &Mastrogianni, 2003). Due to globalization, an individualin any part of the world can be able to travel from a particularculture to the other through notable media such as the internet,books and the internet among others. In the field of economics,globalization can be regarded as the way in which products, prices,rates and wages will be similar.
UrbanizationEffects on Family Structure and Support
Itis clear that, due to the industrial developments which are relatedto globalization, there are some countries which have been able tooffer resources, others are good in manufacturing and consumption. The concept of production means that, higher numbers of individualsare currently moving from the rural to urban settings, thus more than50% of the world population lives in urban areas, and this isprojected to increase going forward. Consequently, increased levelsof urbanization results in overcrowding giving rise to urban ghettosas witnessed in major cities such as Jakarta, Nairobi, Haiti amongothers (Cheema, Kalra &Bhugra, 2010). Overcrowding has adverseeffects to human beings resulting to disorganization, violence amongother pathology linked with congested cities. Urbanization has aneffect to human health due to raised level of social isolation, thusresulting to raised cases of mental disorders. Due to theglobalization of various cultures as well as raised acceptance ofview points, family units are rapidly being affected. For instance,in India, family systems which were once well united are disappearingquickly, as children move out early enough in search for educationand jobs thereafter. Even within joint families, interaction issignificantly decreasing due to changes taking place in variousspheres of life (Cheema, Kalra &Bhugra, 2010). For example,family social life is currently being taken over by TVs, computerfacilities among others.This fact has resulted to raised stresslevels due which negatively affect family settings.
Inpast four decades there has been an acceleration of economic, socialand political transformation. has produced a sequenceof rapid changes in diverse sectors of the society. This hassubstantially affected the living standards, political freedom andhealth conditions. More specifically globalization has impactedprofoundly on the mental health conditions of urban dwellers. Sharpincreases of income disparity across states and urban areas havefueled social relations and community participation (Cheema, Kalra&Bhugra, 2010). Changes caused by globalization in the labormarket has influenced job security and unemployment something thathas impactedthe lives of many workersand families living in urban areas. Environmental and urban changeshave had momentous impacts on the quality of life of communities incities and towns, with particular allusionto those of low socio economic status (Cheema, Kalra &Bhugra,2010). It is these changes in health and social sectors that impacton the operations of the First Choice Counseling.
Atthe outset, swift economic and social changes have raised the degreeof uncertainties among many residents living in urban centers.Nonetheless, the rising instability disproportionately impactpopulation that have capacity and prowess to adjust to the newenvironment. The ensuing psychosocial disruption and stress of socialrelations has had negative effects on health and health behaviors.Psychological elements reconcile the rapidly changes in economic andsocial sphere fueled by globalization and health related in two majorways. On the macro level the economic changes which has unfavorablyaffected majority of the individuals living in urban areas. Morespecifically the income inequality has affected heath via personalperceptions of place in the larger social hierarchy creating negativeemotions that are translated in their body into poorer health throughpsycho-neuro-endocrineimmunologic mechanisms and otherself-destructive behaviors such as drug abuse and stress (Cheema,Kalra &Bhugra, 2010).
Subsequentlyperceptions of relative position and negative emotions are alsotranslated “outside” the individual into antisocial behaviorssuch as traffic accidents, less social cohesion and reduced civicparticipation. has been closely connected to theweakening of environmental regulations as a consequence of increasedimbalances between civic society and business. Policies that governwater, noise, and air pollution, and crowding and release of toxicsubstances especially in urban areas have a powerful impact on theaverage communities. It is important to state that physicalenvironment substantially influences physical and psychological wellbeing. Various research studies have indicated that environmental,geographic and community conditions are predictors of health behaviorand social disorganization (Cheema, Kalra &Bhugra, 2010).
Unhealthyenvironments exposes people to chronic stress die to the magnitude ofhassles and time required to redress primary tasks of living. Morespecifically, lower socio-economic groups find it extremely difficultto cope with harsher environments that are rife with stressful events(Sue, Gordon & Lauren, 2014). Our agency mainly focuses onoffering therapy to individuals living in urban areas aged 10-20.This is group is more susceptible to environmental effects whichleads to physical and mental instabilities, with special reference toanxiety and depression.
Thedelivery for quality therapy is particularly difficult due toinstitutional influences that shape the nature of services fordifferent individual from diverse ethnic group and races. Forexample, cultural and ethnic elements ought to be considered inpsychosocial therapy treatment for many grounds (Sue, Gordon &Lauren, 2014). Incorporating the cultural factor in psychotherapytreatment is important because it is also a form of culturalphenomenon that serves a crucial role in the therapy process. In thisprocess there are ethical dilemmas that emerge and that call for aspecial attention and approach to achieve the intended goal of thetherapy. First the cultural and ethnic concepts of patients mayclash with the mainstream norms and values in the field ofpsychology. These values may be the guiding factors and when they areignored psychological treatment can cause harm. The cause oftreatment disparities are complex, are pegged on contemporary andhistoric inequities, and entail numerous participants at differentlevels (Sue, Gordon & Lauren, 2014).
Inaddition different theoretical orientations have diverseinterpretation and application of therapeutic boundaries. This meansthat the extent to which a health professional or psychologists forthat matter, can intervene and relate with the patients is pegged onthe extent to which the culture of the patient permits. In such acase we are forced to dismantle particular rigid boundaries to be ina position to help various groups of individual. This also affectsthe limit of confidentiality and the therapeutic approach that apsychologist can employ.has made it extremelydifficult for psychologists to maintain therapeutic neutrality andmaintain boundaries as per the recommendation (Zur, 2013).
has the power to transform a social centric society into anego-centric one, which creates a breeding ground for different formsof mental disorders and instabilities. With the increased levels ofmigration around the globe, social isolation has and continues toincrease and an inherent social support system has continued todiminish within the community and family setup. First ChoiceCounseling offers therapy to mentally ill and individual with mentaldisorders living in urban areas. has led to themigration of people of different races into urban centers and as aresult of urban pressure the rate of mental disturbances has beenincreasing. This cultural integration means that health professionalsand psychologists have an n-depth understanding of the culturalperspective of the various forms of mental illness and instabilities.
Withthe levels of distress due to changing identities, increasinginequalities and acculturation, the rates of mental illness andinstabilities are increasing in urban areas. For field placementagency engaged in therapy for the mentally unstable, it is importantto recognize that understanding how globalizations lead to mentalillness to be in a position to align mitigation measures and therapyprocedures accordingly. Our planet has been converted into a globalvillage and as such we must embrace and learn how changes socialenvironment and changing institutions, ground rules, relationships toaddress mental problems amicably.
Bhugra,Dand Mastrogianni, A. (2003). Globalisation and mental disorders.British Journal of Psychistry. Retrieved from:http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/184/1/10
Cheema,F.,Kalra, G. and Bhugra, D. (2010).Globalisation and Mental Health:Context and Controversies. Journal of Pakistan Psychiatric SocietyVo. 7 No. 2. Retrieved from:ww.jpps.com.pk/display_articles.asp?d=250&p=art
Sue,S., N., Gordon C. N., and Lauren K. B. (2014). The Case forCultural Competency in Psychotherapeutic Interventions. NationalInstitute of Health. Retrieved from:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2793275/
Zur,O.(2013). TherapeuticBoundaries and Dual Relationships in Rural Practice: Ethical,Clinical and Standard of Care Considerations.ZurInstitute, Sonoma, CA.Retrieved from:http://www.marshall.edu/jrcp/9_1_zur.htm