Fluid,Electrolyte, and pH Balance Answers
Utilizingknowledge from your learning and assigned readings, respond to thefollowing questions:
Themaintenance of normal volume and composition of extracellular andintracellular fluids is vital to life. List and briefly describe thekinds of homeostasis involved.
Thethree components of the body that are involved are:
Fluid – This is the component of the body that makes sure that the amount of water lost is equal to the amount of water gained by it. Less than ideal amount of water is called as Hypovolemia too much water is called as Hypervolemia.
Electrolyte – This refers the amount of minerals in the body. Electrolyte balance has to do with the body’s blood chemistry. Examples of electrolytes are Sodium, Calcium and Potassium among other minerals. This can go off balance due to fluid imbalance, diseases and also medicine intake.
Acid Base Balance – this is the pH balance of the body, ensuring a good balance between the amount of acids and bases in the body. Acidity increases or decreases depending on the food consumption, diseases as well as medicine intake.
Whydoes maintaining fluid balance in older people require a higher waterintake than in a normal, healthy adult under age 40?
Hereare some reasons why adults above 40 require higher water intake.
Over40 individuals have a less efficient fluid balance system. They havean improved chance of experiencing Hypovolemia. This means, they losewater faster.
Over40 individuals are more prone to diseases. Especially issues relatedto the kidney and blood pressure. The kidney is not as efficient asit should be at managing fluid balance. The kidney lets go more waterthan necessary.
Thebody also manages sugar level poorly. For the same amount of sugar inthe body, more water is needed to break it down inside the body. Morewater used means more water has to be consumed.
Whydoes potassium concentration rise in patients with acidosis? What isthis called? What effects does it have?
Acidosisis connected to the pH level in the body. The specific value here is7.35. If the pH value is below this value, acidosis is said to occur(Martini, p. 1027). A specific case here is renal acidosis. In thiscase, the kidney has failed to function. Hence, acid begins tocollect in the body. As a result, the urine acidifies.
Someof the effects of acidosis
Reduction of 2 and 3 DPG levels in the body’s red cell.
Venoconstriction and Vasoconstriction in veins and arteries respectively.
Salinesolution is used to reverse hypotonic hydration. Are body cellmembranes permeable to saline? Explain your response.
Bodycells are permeable to saline solution. Saline solution allows waterto move from one side of the cell to other side. This is why it isused to fix the hypotonic hydration solution. Movement always happensfrom a region of lower concentration to higher concentration(Martini, p. 1018). The saline concentration is the highconcentration area and the cells are the lower concentration. Saltmoves through the membrane, solving the hypotonic hydration.
Explainthe renin-angiotensin mechanism.
Therenin-angiotensin mechanism is the body system that is responsiblefor two things.
Thismechanism works with the conversion of Angiotensin to Angiotensin I.The Angiotensin is then converted to Angiotensin II. The AngiotensinII is responsible for increasing the blood pressure (Martini, p.991). The following effects are related to this.
Nephron – Leads to storage of sodium at nephron, when it should be potassium.
Adrenal gland – leads to release of aldosterone. Due to this, kidney starts retaining sodium and starts losing potassium.
CNS – The baroreceptor reflex starts losing its ability to respond quickly. It also reduces the body’s desire for consuming salt.
peripheral capillary beds
Explainhow ADH compensates for blood that contains too many solutes
Toomany solutes in the blood mean lower concentration of water (Martini,p. 1020). ADH does play a role in managing the water level. Whenwater level is low, it will direct the kidney to hold more water.Hence, less water will be present in the urine. Further, ADH alsocauses water channels to appear in the cell membranes. This increaseswater absorption.
Martini,F., & Ober, W. (2006). Fundamentals of anatomy & physiology(7th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Pearson Benjamin Cummings.