Essay Essay




Part 1: Write down threequestions about the reading: what do you not understand or want toknow more about.

  1. What was the role of 18th century western thoughts in the development of Russian intelligence?

  2. What were major factors that influenced the development of intelligence in the Russian society?

  3. How did intellectual development influence the Russian society?

Part 2: Quote from the book.

“There are those who speakof progress, and are prepared to sacrifice the present to the future,to make men suffer today in order that their remote descendants mightbe happy, and condone brutal crimes and degradation of human beings,because these are the indispensable means towards some guaranteedfuture felicity” (Berlin, 2008, p 7)

Modern thoughts andintelligence is mainly developed from historical experiences andobservations. The actions in the past for example may have negativeeffects on the society, and consequently result into thoughts aboutthe issue. There is no doubt that the modern society is faced bynumerous challenges. However, a look at the past indicates that theancient societies, there is madness almost as widespread as it is inour own world. Thus, modern thinkers can borrow a lot of ideas fromthe ancient thinkers on how to deal with problems in the modernsociety. Consequently, modern intelligentsia in Russia and otherparts of the world always make reference to ancient intelligentsia.For example, the intellectual development in the 18thcentury in Europe has had huge impact in the modern intelligentsia.This includes the impacts of degradation of human beings and brutalactivities in the future generations. Similar views about what isgood or band in the society has been shared by “reactionaryHegelians and revolutionary communists, speculative utilitarians andultramontane zealots” (Berlin, 2008, p 7).


Berlin, I. (2008). “Aremarkable decade: the birth of the Russian intelligentsia” inRussian Thinkers.Eds. Henry H. &ampAileen K. (2008). New York, NY: Penguin p 130-154.