Epidemiology research

EPIDEMIOLOGY RESEARCH 9

One of the most common and important urologic cancers affectingpopulations due to its high lethality in the world is kidney cancerasserts Rubagotti et al (2006). Kidney cancer originates from thefist size bean shaped organs located in the abdominal back part ofthe body. It is rated amongst 10 of the most deadly forms of cancer.The renal cell carcinoma is the most prevalent type of canceraffecting adults.

Data explained

Kidney cancer has rapidly increased in the recent years. More than61,560 people in the US alone will have Kidney cancer in 2015 withabout 14,080 succumbing to the disease according to the Americancancer society (Badani, 2015). Of all the 61,560 cases, 38,270 menand 23,290 women are affected leading to a total of 14,080 deathsfrom the disease by the end of this year. More men at 9,070 ascompared to 5,010 women are estimated to succumb to disease. Thispaper study will identify clinical and occupational factors as wellas substance related factors causing kidney carcinogenesis. Itattempts to answer questions on the age, gender, geographicdistribution, and multiple clinical factors established for RCC. Itfocuses on renal cell carcinoma one of the most common kidney cancersamongst adults.

Cases in the world and the US population

Cases of cancer are alarming with high incidences of kidney cancerspreading globally. Below is a table of 20 of the highest incidencesof kidney cancer by 2012 for both sexes in the world.

Rank

Country

Age standardized rate per 100,000

1

Czech Republic

16.7

2

Lithuania

13.2

3

Slovakia

12.5

4

USA

12.0

5

Estonia

11.7

6

Belarus

11.1

7

Slovenia

11.1

8

Latvia

10.9

9

Germany

10.6

10

Croatia

10.0

11

Israel

10.0

12

France

9.7

13

Australia

9.5

14

Uruguay

9.4

15

Norway

9.3

16

Canada

9.3

17

Hungary

9.1

18

Russian Federation

8.9

19

Iceland

8.8

20

The Netherlands

8.8

Ferlay (2012)

Group of age affected more and ethnic groups more vulnerable

59 % of kidney cancer cases occur in developed sates with thehighest incidences of kidney cancer occurring in North American andEuropean states. The lowest incidences occur in Africa and Asia. Mostgroups of people suffering from kidney cancer are older as theaverage age for diagnosis stands at 64-5. It is uncommon in youngpeople especially if below 45 years of age. The disease is likely toaffect both men and women with men being at a higher risk than women.Being male is a risk factor for kidney cancer. A research by Major etal. (2010) revealed that insulin like growth factors put men at arisk of kidney cancer than women. The insulin like factor –I(IGF-I) increases kidney growth renal function and glomerularfiltration rate which is associated to kidney cancer risk.

Black Americans are three times more likely to suffer from kidneycancer as compared to whites for reasons that research has not foundconclusively. Hispanics are one and a half more times likely tosuffer from kidney cancer and failure than whites.

Factors contributing to the sickness

As people age, they become vulnerable to diseases and kidney canceris one of those ailments. Smoking is another cause of kidney cancer.According to Pascual and Bosque (2008), multiple carcinogenicsubstances have been identified in tobacco. Those substances are avariety of neoplasms leading to an estimated 2.3 risk fold ratio forsmokers as compared to non-smokers.

In their study on the association of obesity and the kidney disease,Wang et al (2008) discovered that obesity increases the risk forkidney ailments such as kidney cancer. Obesity also adversely affectspatients with kidney related cancers or diseases. Rodge et al. (2012)argue that obese patients have significantly higher total incidencesof postoperative complications especially cancer specific patientsoperated for RCC. A case study carried out in central European statesrevealed that of 1097 incident cases and 1476 controls increasedrisks for self reported hypertension and obesity were known riskfactors for high rates of kidney cancer (Brennan et al. 2008).Research finding s reveal that BMI and RCC associations implicate therole of body fat and diet in RCC etiology (Asal et al. 2009).

Being male is a risk factor for kidney cancer asserts Major et al.(2010). Using certain medication for long and having advanced kidneydisease or long-term dialysis. Certain genetic conditions likeinherited papillary renal cell carcinoma and having family history ofkidney cancer. Exposure to chemicals such as cadmium, benzene,asbestos, organic solvents and certain herbicides is another riskfactor (Pascual and Bosque, 2008). High blood pressure and thetreatment used to treat HBP poses as a risk factor.

Blacks have higher risks than whites for no known reasons. Thelymphoma condition also increases the risk factors of getting kidneycancer. The above risk factor have been classified as general riskfactors of cancer.

The number of people exposed to the sickness

One in every three adults in America currently are at a risk ofdeveloping kidney disease. 26 million Americans are unaware that theyalready have kidney diseases (Mayo clinic, 2015). More than 47,000Americans died of kidney cancer in 2013 with the following yearshaving higher numbers of deaths. RCC a deadly form of kidney cancercausing deaths every year. The demographic aspects of renal cellcarcinoma (RCC) revealed that among urologic tumors, RCC takes thethird place after prostate cancer and transitional carcinoma bladder(Pascual and Bosque, 2008). Exposure to kidney cancer results fromrisk factors such as family history of kidney cancer, being olderthan 60 years, smoking, obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, andcardiovascular diseases.

Signs and symptoms

Research reveals that many people may not experience early symptomsof cancer but as the tumor grows larger the symptoms become evident.According to Mayo clinic (2015) symptoms like blood in urine, a lumpon the side of the abdomen and a pain are major signs of kidneycancer. Loss of appetite, weight loss for no reason and extremefatigue are also linked to symptoms of kidney cancer. Swelling of theankles or legs, anemia, lasting fever for weeks not caused by cold orother infections are other signs of kidney cancer. As the cancerspreads to other parts of the body it causes bone pain, breathshortness and coughing up blood asserts Badani (2015).

Transmission

Kidney cancer cannot be transmitted to others people physically.However, it begins with cells acquiring mutations in their DNA. Themutations make the cells grow and divide at a fast rate as theaccumulating abnormal cells form a tumor that goes beyond the kidney.Kidney cancer grows in four stages. In the first stage, the tumor canbe as big as 7 centimeters in diameter while at the second stage thetumor is larger than stage one but still in the kidney. In the thirdstage, the tumor extends beyond the kidney to the tissues around itand may spread to the lymph nodes. Cancer spreads to multiple organs,lymph nodes, body parts such as lungs, liver or the bones in thefourth stage (Mayo clinic, 2015).

Treatment and preventability

After detecting the symptoms, a thorough physical examination isconducted by a professional doctor. The examination includes abdomencheck for lumps, fever and check for HBP and others tests. Fordiagnosis to be made urine tests to check blood in the urine andblood test to show how the kidneys are working are carried out.Intravenous pyelogram tests involving kidney x-ray and Ultrasound tocreate the picture of the kidney are done. Magnetic resonance and CTscan help create a series of details while renal arteriogram testsevaluate the blood supply to the tumor.

Tests are followed by treatment plans depending on the kidney stage.The treatment may involve a urologist, radiation oncologist orsurgeon. For those who go through surgery extra treatment isrecommended to kill any remaining cells. The three types of surgeryare radical, simple and partial nephrectomy (Badani, 2015). Otheroptions instead of surgery include cryotherapy, which uses cold tokill the tumor, radiofrequency ablation, and arterial embolizationinvolving insertion of materials on the artery to block blood flow inthe tumor. Kidney cancer can be prevented through safety measureslike eating a healthy diet to avoid being overweight, not smoking,avoiding harmful medication and chemical exposure. The preventabilityproject estimated that kidney cancer can be prevented if everyone inthe USA had a healthy weight by 24%.Similar estimates for healthyweight in the UK, Brazil and China revealed that with healthy weight,kidney cancer can be reduced by 19%, 13% and 8% respectively.

References

Asal, N. Theis, R. Dolwick, G. Burr, D. Siddiqui, T.(2009). ‘Obesity,body composition and risk of renal cell cancer a population basedcase control study.’ International journal of health science,2(1)167-175. Retrieved fromhttp://eds.a.ebscohost.com.library.gcu.edu:2048/eds/detail/[email protected]&ampvid=1&amphid=4208&ampbdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ==#db=a9h&ampAN=37802652

Badani. K.(2015).’What everyone should know about kidney cancer,’Mount health system, Huffington post, edition US retrievedfromhttp://www.huffingtonpost.com/mount-sinai- health-system/what-everyone-should-know-about-kidney-cancer_b_6924812.html

Brennan, O. Van, O. Moore, L (2008). ‘Tobacco smoking, body massindex, hypertension and kidney cancer risk in central and easternEurope’. British Journal of cancer, 99(11), 1912-1915retrieved fromhttp://eds.a.ebscohost.com.library.gcu.edu:2048/eds/detail/[email protected]&ampvid=1&amphid=4208&ampbdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ==#db=a9h&ampAN=35413554

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, Dikshit R, Eser S, Mathers C,Rebelo M, Parkin DM, Forman D, Bray, F. GLOBOCAN (2012). v1.1,Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC Cancer BaseNo. 11 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Researchon Cancer 2014. from:&nbsphttp://globocan.iarc.fr,

Mayo Clinic (2015). Kidney cancer, disease and condition, MayoFoundation for Medical Education and Research Retrieved fromhttp://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases- conditions/kidney-cancer/basics/tests-diagnosis/con-20024753

Rubagotti, A. Martorana, G. &amp Boccardo, F.(2006). ‘Epidemiologyof Kidney cancer,’ European Urology supplements, 5(recitation artis plenaon kidney cancer)558-565. Retrieved from http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.library.gcu.edu:2048/eds/detail/[email protected]&ampvid=1&amphid=103&ampbdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ==#db=edselp&ampAN=S1569905606001278

Rodge. A., Gudbrandsdottir, G Hjelle, K Sand, K Bostad, L&ampBeisland, C.(2012). ‘Obesity is associated with an improved cancerspecific survival but an increased rate of postoperativecomplications after surgery for renal cell carcinoma,’Scandinavian Journal of Urology&amp Nephrology, 46(5),348-357. Retrieved fromhttp://eds.a.ebscohost.com.library.gcu.edu:2048/eds/detail/[email protected]&ampvid=1&amphid=4208&ampbdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ==#db=a9h&ampAN=80205160

Major, J. Pollak, M. Synder, K. Virtamo and Albanese, D.(2010).‘Insulin like growth factors and risk of kidney cancer in men.’British journal of cancer, 103(1), 132-135 from http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.library.gcu.edu:2048/eds/detail/[email protected]&ampvid=1&amphid=4208&ampbdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ==#db=a9h&ampAN=51857298

Pascaul, D. &amp Borque, A.(2008). ‘Epidemiology of kidneycancer,’ Advances in urology, 1-7, retrieved from http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.library.gcu.edu:2048/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=8f12ad0a-089c-43bd-bc7d-46aa858d502f%40sessionmgr113&ampvid=2&amphid=112

Wang, Y. Chen, X. Song, Y. Caballero, B. &amp Cheskin, L. (2008).‘Association between obesity and kidney disease: A systematicreview and meta-analysis,’ Kidney International, 73(1), 19-33 Retrieved fromhttp://eds.a.ebscohost.com.library.gcu.edu:2048/eds/detail/[email protected]&ampvid=1&amphid=4208&ampbdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ==#db=a9h&ampAN=27948521