Theevents leading to the Byzantine succession of the Roman Empire led tomany structural changes after the assumption of leadership byConstantine. This is after the fall of the Western Roman fall in476AD. The Byzantine established Constantinople under the leadershipof Constantin and employed several religious reforms. Firstly,Constantin approved the Christian religion previously opposed by theRoman Empire and he also converted into Christianity. His dynasty wasable to outlast for over 1000 years proving that the Empire he hadfounded was indeed successful (Justinian and The Roman Empire)
TheArab dynasty saw a series of structural changes in its religiousaffiliations after 600AD. The much proclaimed Prophet Mohammed whoproclaimed to have had received messages from God, saw the firstintroduction of Islam. The messages were inscribed in the Quran inwhich those who converted their religious swore allegiance to it. Itwas regarded as the holy book and they imposed their beliefs on thosewho were non-believers. This saw the high rise in higher taxes to theZoroastrians, who were regarded as pagans, and also Christians andJews. (The Arabs)
Thedeath of Mohammed saw the rise in caliphates both the Sunni and Shia.These groups sought superiority over the other with one Shiapledging allegiance to the kinship leadership after Mohammed whilethe Sunni sought the continuity of tradition appointing those theydeemed fit to lead them. The magnetism between the Islamist andChristian factions escalated when Karakhanids became one of theTurkic people to pledge allegiance to Islam.(The Muslim World)
Thosewho did not pledge allegiance to Islam were met with harsh penaltieslike death. This is because the religion carried with it a message ofapproval on the oppression of those it did deem as non-believers.This led to numerous atrocities being committed on Christians as eventhose who committed murder were only culpable to a fine and not anequally tougher sentence.(The Muslim World)
Justinian,who had become the leader of the Byzantine, led Christian factions inupholding the Christian religion by establishing the ChristianChurch. He led a series of wars between the Persians and his rulingempire. Justinian who ruled in 500sAD was seen as the emperor whoadopted imperial reunification strategies. He led a series ofsuccessful religious reforms that most historians deems as being oneof the reasons as to why the Roman Empire was one of the mostsuccessful empires to date.(Justinian and the Roman Empire)
Howeverthe rise in the Sunni factions of the Islam religion led tohostilities between it and the Shia group. These posed greatchallenges and hurdles between the two factions and threatened tocrumble the Arab Empire. Even though Sunnis were the majority it didhowever pose a great challenge to the Arab Empire cohesion.
Eventhough, it is evident that the religious policy changes were indeedinstrumental to the successes of both the Arab and the Roman Empires.In the Arab dynasty for example those who did not swear allegiance toIslam were faced with hostilities. This led to them conquering andcapturing strongholds by collecting more taxes from those who did notfollow Islam and then using this funds to fund a strong defensesystem.
TheRoman Empire owes a strong religious policy as a strong backbone toits longevity as it used it to its advantage. Under Justinianleadership, they were able to collect more funding from aristocratsand then used this to fund their defense systems. The religiouspolicies also aided in the establishment of strong trade ties witheven China and hence a strong financial backing.