Step1: Ethical Issues Analysis
Whatpublic health problems, needs, concerns are at issue?
Someof the Issues such as the right means of isolating the infectedpersons and the how to quarantine those people that have been let outto the virus but may not be ill continue to be nurtured not just inAfrican affected nations, but as well in the U.S.A (Ansumana et al.,2014).
Whatare appropriate public health goals in this context?
Thepublic health goals in this case are to stop the Ebola virus fromspreading and handling of the affected people.
Whatis the source and scope of legal authority, if any, and which lawsand regulations are relevant?
Thepublic health law is the source of sound authority that has legalregulations act. It advises on how health workers to should actduring emergencies and through federal declarations of emergency(Ansumana et al., 2014). They are needed to inform legal authorityand procedures to their emergency response partners like the health,and government agencies during the practice sessions, planning andactual emergencies.
Whatare the relevant norms and claims of stakeholders in the situationand how strong or weighty are they?
Reactingto the Ebola cases and health disasters poses a challenge for themedical workers and the public health system in concert with thesound organization of the public health. Other factors involve theactual response of public health officials to act and investthemselves in peril. The law therefore can affect both results.
Arethere relevant precedent legal and ethical cases?
Thereare legal protections for those who opt to turn down employment.Under the anti- retaliation law if somebody causes a reasonableconcern for safety and chooses not to operate that is guaranteed onlyif it`s regarded as frivolous then its not.
Whichfeatures of the social-cultural-historical context is relevant?
Doprofessional codes of ethics provide guidance?
Theprofessional code provides a guidance in code of ethics for examplethe Privacy Rule which protects the privacy of patients but iswell-adjusted to make sure that suitable uses and disclosures of theinfo still might be made available for treatment of a patient inorder to protect a nations health in vital circumstances (Ansumana etal., 2014).
Step2: Assess the Ethical Dimensions of the Public Health Options
Utility: Does a particular public health option produce a balance of benefitsover harms?
Publichealth consultants must be equipped to exhibit that the matter ofquarantine is actually or reasonably suspected of being exposed to aninfective condition. That the infectious condition (like Ebola) posesa specific threat to the public’s health, that the conditions ofquarantine are warranted, safe, and habitable, and that proceduraldue process including fair notice
Justice: Are the benefits and burdens distributed fairly, and do legitimaterepresentatives of affected groups have the opportunity toparticipate in making decisions?
Hospitalsand other health providers may require employing health care workers(HCWs) to provide care so long as employers also make availablepersonal protective equipment, employ practices to prevent exposureand infection, and properly train and school personnel (Ansumana etal.,2014). Health care workers that refuse to care for Ebola patientsmay perhaps face sacking and other sanctions from their boss, as wellas licensing sanctions and ethical inspections.
Respectfor liberty: Does the public health action respect individualchoices and pursuits such as autonomy, autonomy, and secrecy?
Ingeneral, such amounts may only be done when they render the leastrestrictive way of shielding the public’s health and subject todiverse procedures. The Hawaii Department of Health, for instance,must hold a written court order authorizing quarantine. The affectedindividual must be apprized of the order and may contend it. However,quarantine may still be enforced prior to the issue of the order ifthe delay in fixing the court order puts an immediate menace to thepublic’s health. Likewise, before restrictions are imposed in SouthCarolina during a declared state of public health emergency, thehealth commissioner or trial court must publish an order authorizingquarantine measures and assist those affected with notice within 24hours.
Respectfor legitimate public institutions: Does the public health actionrespect professional and civic roles and values such as transparency,honesty, trustworthiness, promise-keeping, protectingconfidentiality, and protecting vulnerable individuals andcommunities from undue stigmatizations?
TheDisabilities Act forbids employers from inquiring into medicalconditions or taking medical examinations except for job-relatedunderstandings of business requirement. It also requires reasonableaccommodation by employers and prohibits discrimination againstpersons who possess or are regarded as holding a disability unlessthe individual presents a direct threat to the health or safety(e.g., such as a person with an active case of Ebola). The Family andMedical Leave Act (FMLA) permits eligible employees to get up to 12weeks of unpaid leave. This is to address a grave health condition inthemselves or immediate household members, among other uses, andprotect the employee from termination or retaliation by an employer.
Step3: Providing justification for the selection Public Health action.
Effectiveness: Is the action likely to accomplish the public health goal?
Quarantineis most likely to assist in accomplishment of public health goal. This quarantine is aimed at stopping the spread of the virus. The CDCtherefore has the power to quarantine individuals travelling from themost affected areas and the authority mainly occurs to specificdiseases including Ebola (Ansumana et al., 2014).
Necessity: Is it necessary to override the conflicting ethical claims toachieve the public health goal?
Attimes it is important to override the conflicting ethical claims inorder to arrive at a public health goal. For example in situationswhere a court has to be obtained in order to impose quarantine or maystill be issued if the continued delay poses a threat to the publichealth. The affected person may also contest the order but in thecase of danger then it just has to be imposed.
LeastInfringement: Is the action the least restrictive and leastintrusive?
Thereare actually other actions that are less restrictive. These are thealternatives which have been proposed rather than quarantine. CDC,under recently updated guidance, recommends that states tailor thelevel of monitoring to the individual’s risk of exposure, usingvoluntary quarantine for known exposure and direct active monitoringfor those with some risk of exposure during the length of theincubation period.
Proportionality: Will the probable benefits of the action outweigh the infringedmoral considerations and any negative effects?
Itis very clear in this case that the probable outcome of actions wouldreally outweigh the infringed moral considerations going by the factthat many lives will be saved and the person who has the disease canalso get proper treatment.
Impartiality: Are the burdens and benefits of the action distributed fairly?
Theburdens and the benefits of the actions have been distributed fairlysince saving lives through quarantine is important and a valid reasonto have it imposed on someone.
Publicjustification: Can public health officials offer publicjustification that citizens, and in particular, those most affected,would find acceptable in principle?
Publichealth officials can offer justification and particular the mostaffected can understand for example like the one at the Emory(Ansumana et al., 2014). My colleagues at Emory are doing anexemplary job, especially given the magnitude of this challenge. Noone has guaranteed complete safety from any disease, nor will they.Rightfully however, they will try to put the risk in perspective sothat most people can make a reasoned assessment and deal with therisk accordingly.
Ansumana,R., Jacobsen, K. H., Idris, M. B., Bangura, H., Boie-Jalloh, M.,Lamin, J. M., … & Sahr, F. (2014). Ebola in Freetown area,Sierra Leone—a case study of 581 patients. New England Journal ofMedicine.