Summary of the Research Methods and Results
Name of University
22 January 2020
: Summary of the Research Methods and Results
The present brief paper was purposed to provide a succinct summary ofthe proposed research study, featuring the research methods andpredicted results of the proposed research study. The first sectionwill focus on the experimental research methods to be employed whenimplementing the proposed study. This section provides a briefoverview of the targeted research participants, their selectionprocess, inclusive demographic profile, recruitment, and roledesignation of the proposed sample. The methods section also coversthe research materials anticipated for use when implementing theproposed research undertaking. Finally, the section provides a briefreview of the experimental research procedure as strategicallydesigned for the implementation of the proposed research study. Thesecond and last section of the summary will focus on the predictedresearch results or findings, specifically highlighting the maineffects, correlations, interactions, and statistical significantrations, with a cohesive caption of the proposals’ predictions.
The proposed research undertaking will implement an experimentalresearch method, collecting data from drivers in the real context,when they are driving along public roads and simultaneously handlingphone calls. Previous research findings suggest that en loseconcentration faster when multi-tasking than women, and willtherefore constitute the targeted sample of respondents. The busiestage group is the youthful drivers aged between 30 and 40 years,predictably taking numerous phones from families, friends and workmates or even customers. Such calls will be more critical if thediver is in the middle-income group of American citizens, andregardless of race, the highest risk level is posed by young men inpersonal business engagements for a work life (rather than a docileoffice setting). The study will target an idea sample of 10respondents, strategically chosen, rather than randomly assigned, tocapture the exclusion and inclusion criteria of the sample asexplained above. Local government records will help identify at least25 of the candidates whose licenses were recently renewed, and whocan be contacted and requested to participate in the study.Ultimately, the sample for the experimental study will include:
10 men aged between 30 and 40 years, of any race, currently running a vibrant personal business and who drive themselves to and from work on a daily basis, all of whom are purposively selected based on recent license renewals at a local jurisdiction
Besides the basic stationary that the researcher will need (includingpens, folders, and notebooks), implementing the experimental studywill also require the use of video and audio recording devices. Twovideo cameras will be specially designed and placed within apersonal vehicle of participating drivers. One camera will be locatedin a position ideal to record where the car drives to, assuming theviewpoint of the driver, to document the environment in which thedriver is headed to. The second video camera will be concealed facingbackwards, to track the eyes of a driver encourse the drive.
Further, outside the normal view of the driver (concealed), theresearcher will place a sound recorder to document what thedriver says when using a phone, talking to self, and or whenconcentrating on driving. All the three recorders will use ahigh-capacity memory card for storage, with two additionalmemory cards available if needed. Upon recording, the memory cardswill then be copied into a desktop computer, with every driverhaving three files (two video files and one audio file), availablefor data analysis. Upon transfer of the files, the memory cards willbe formatted and used in subsequent recordings.
Experimental Research Procedure
Although the experimental study appears complex to implement, it willprogress through a basic systematic process. Upon recruitment of the10 drivers as participants in the study, the first step will be toinstall the two video cameras and sound recorder in the vehicle, inthe absence of the driver. The recording will then be initiated forthree consecutive days, in early evening sessions as the driversleave their place of work and head home. The evening drive willspecifically be selected because it features a time when mostprofessionals receive and make calls to conclude a workday. Suchdrivers are often exhausted, worn-out, stressed, and concerned aboutassorted issues that were significant during the day, to easily looseconcentration demanded of a driver in the evening hours when roadsare often extremely busy. By the third day, the sampled drivers willpredictably have forgotten that they are being recorded. Notably, thedrivers may not feign concentration on the road as will mostpredictably do on the first day, and will most likely have adoptedtheir usual behaviors (Horrey & Wickens, 2006).
The research study will therefore select the video and soundrecordings obtained on the third day for each of the sampled drives.The researcher and two research assistants (peers) will make twocalls to the target drivers on their third day, and on separateoccasions during the drive. The researcher will then compare theconcentration of the drivers prior to and during the phone calls,including all other phone calls made to the drivers, unplanned, suchas those received from family, friends and work mates. The plannedand unplanned phone calls will be recorded during the third day’sdrive. Level of concentration of the divers will then be compared tothe environment in which they are driving to, noting the changes thatoccur on the match between these two factors (environment vs.concentration) during a phone call.
It is predicted that prior to any phone call, drivers will matchtheir concentration to the environment (where they are driving to),and that during any phone call received, this match will becompromised to significant levels. The eye coordination of the driverduring phone calls will be low and largely inaccurate, compared tothe eye coordination with the environment prior to any phone call. Itis predicted that the complex the conversation is on phone, the lowerthe level of concentration and eye coordination a driver will have.The study will employ statistical correlation between eyecoordination of the driver and the environment, to highlight anysignificant variance either pro (positive) or anti (negative)correlation, using percentage ratios.
To exemplify, one of the discussion paragraphs used in the finalreport after analyzing the experimental findings will read:
“Empirical research findings generated from the research studyshows that talking on phone inhibits a driver’s ability to respondto emergencies, given their loss of eye coordination when conversingon the phone. A driver’s eyes appear disoriented and uncoordinatedduring phone calls, particularly during calls that demand interactiveengagement such as those made from the office. The present researchstudy established that using mobile phones while driving could easilypredispose serious consequences for driver, triggered by a high-risklevel of committing an accident. The sampled drivers exemplified howhuman beings can only concentrate on a few things simultaneously, butdriving demands total and exclusive level of concentration foreffectiveness. As the findings illustrate, the ability of drivers torespond to imperative events reduce if they are talking on a mobilephone, more so when sudden and unpredicted occurrences interrupt anormal routine as driving through the same road severally in a day.”
Horrey, W., & Wickens, C. (2006). Examining the Impact of CellPhone Conversations on Driving Using Meta-Analytic Techniques. HumanFactors, 38 (1): 196–205.