DIET AND EXERCISE 6
TheAmerican diabetes association recommended to the physicians todiagnose diabetes type 2 by using the level of fasting orpostprandial glucose level. The diagnosis concept is based on theconcern that diet and lack of exercise remain the two related causesof diabetes. Fowler asserts that a person with plasma glucose levelof less than 200 just two hours after consumption of a meal with 75gof glucose is considered diabetic (Fowler, 2007). Therefore, the typeof diet that one takes influences the level of glucose in the bloodsystems. Excess consumption of food causes type 2 of diabetes. Aworkout is the best way to reverse a diabetic situation andphysicians advise their patients to reduce weight by having regulardiet and exercise program. The essay correlates that fact that a typeof diet influences the level and intensity of activity that encourageeither fat or carbohydrates metabolism.
Personswith a BMI> 35kg/m2havea higher risk of developing diabetes unless they work out a trainingplan to decrease the amount of blood glucose and fat (Fowler, 2007).On the other hand, persons with a BMI of 18 to 24 are consideredrisk-free and their level of exercise for health is diminished.Individuals with a long-term ketogenic diet must plan for aerobicperformances to encourage exercise metabolism to lose extra weight(Zajac, Poprzecki, Maszczyk, Czuba, Michalczyk, & Zydek, 2014).Therefore, the type of diet a person will influence their level ofexercise to encourage metabolism. Individuals on ketogenic diet thatconsists of polyunsaturated fatty acids must engage in a continuousand prolonged exercise. On the other hand, people who consumer a lotof carbohydrates need a high intensity activity (Fawler, 2007).Ketogenic diet increased the body mass and interferes with the bodysystems functionality since they experience an increased need forhigh amounts of oxygen to support metabolism of the excess fat orcarbohydrates. Moreover, there is a relative reduction in body massand fat mass, which accompanies higher oxygen uptake during prolongedexercise to encourage oxidation of the fat. Figure 1 below showsthat that the cross-over concept, in which the source of body fuel isexchanged from fat at low-intensity exercise to carbohydrates (CHO)as the percentage of aerobic power needs increase at high maximalphysical performance (Gerber, 2013).
Figure1 (Gerber, 2013)
Aketogenic diet increased the heart rate, and its level is at thehighest while at a rest, which needs an intense physical activity toreverse the heightened body process (Zajac et al., 2014). A moderatediet is based on eating monounsaturated fat that is readily oxidizedand used up to supply body energy needs. Athletes need highcarbohydrates to increase both the muscle and liver glycogen as a wayof providing energy reservoir for the body. The amount ofcarbohydrates in the body correlates with the intensity of exerciseand affects the performance of an athlete. A diet high incarbohydrates ensures that the body is well furnished with energyduring extreme activity for a very short time. Contrastingly, fatmetabolism increases with prolonged physical work. Unlikecarbohydrates that are utilized effectively during short intenseexercises, a diet in fats would require prolonged exercisemetabolism. Therefore, a person taking a ketogenic diet is expectedto attend prolonged physical work to encourage the metabolism of thefat. On the other hand, a diet rich in carbohydrates would needmoderate exercise to achieve full metabolism.
Researchfindings indicate that a reduced carbohydrate diet would force thebody to metabolize fat to provide strength for performance duringstrenuous exercise. The body prefers carbohydrates during intense andshort exercise, but the intake reverse to fats reduced duringmoderate and exhausting exercise (Pomerleau,Imbeault, Parker, &Doucet, 2004).Therefore, if a person takes more carbohydrates than fats, the bodywill be fit for short, but very intense exercise that needs moreenergy. Glycogen metabolism releases more ATP energy per minute (1.0to 2.0 mol/min) compared to free fatty acids (FFA) oxidation (0.40mol/min) (Zajac et al., 2014). The statement means that carbohydratesprovide a high burst of energy for a high intense and short durationactivity. A protein diet provides the lowest power during exerciseand tolerates low intensity and moderate performance compared tocarbohydrates and fats (Fowler, 2007). The finding asserts that adiet rich in fat is utilized for moderate and prolonged workout thatburns the FFA to achieve a healthy life. Contrastingly, an athletetaking a diet comprising of higher fats than carbohydrates is fit forthe low performance, but prolonged exercises. Thus, the type ofexercise a person undertakes is highly determined by the type ofdiet. Short, but intense requires a high boost of ATP energy that isachieved through the metabolism of carbohydrates.
Patientssuffering from diabetes are advised to adopt a moderate physicalworkout plan and increase the intensity of the physical performancewith time to encourage the metabolism of free fatty acids and reduceweight. A diet high in fat would require moderate exercise for overeight weeks to change the body mass. Moreover, strenuous activity isideal for reducing the level of glycogen in the blood afterconsumption of carbohydrates. Low carbohydrate ketogenic dietpromotes oxidation at rest and during moderate intense physicalactivity like running short distances, swimming and cycling. However,fat fuel is the best for endurance exercise like long-distanceperformance activities. However, whenever the body needs to undergomaximal intensity exercise, glycolysis is preferred over fatoxidation. In conclusion, a diet high in fat would require prolongedand moderate exercise to reduce the excess fat while high consumptionof carbohydrates would support maximal workload within a short time.
Fowler,M. J. (2007).Diabetestreatment, part 1: Diet and exercise.ClinicalDiabetes25 (3), 105-109.
Gerber,S. (2013). An introduction to metabolic efficiency.Rareairfitness.com.Retrieved fromhttp://www.rareairfitness.com/metabolic-efficiency-inrtoduction/
Pomerleau,M., Imbeault, P., Parker, T., &Doucet, E. (2004). Effects ofexercise intensity on food intake and appetite in women. AmericanJournal Clinical Nutrition,80 (5), 1230-1236.
Zajac,A., Poprzecki, S., Maszczyk, A., Czuba, M., Michalczyk, M., &Zydek, G. (2014). The effects of a ketogenic diet on exercisemetabolism and physical performances in off-road cyclists. Nutrients6,2493-2508.