Developmental Theories

DEVELOPMENTAL THEORIES 1

DevelopmentalTheories

Humanistic is a term in psychology that relates to an approach, which studies the whole of a person and uniqueness of every individual. The theory emphasizes on studying a person by looking at the behavior, not only from an observer’s side, but also through the person’s eyes (Austrian, 2008).

An example to this theory is when Erin believes she is a generous person, yet she is very stingy with what she owns. She does not tip when dining in restaurants, but by attributing her behavior to the bad service offered, she can keep the self-concept of generosity while avoiding anxiety.

Behaviorist theory only studies observable behavior. Focus on personality is only based on explanations and learning. (Austrian, 2008). Behaviors with positive impacts tend to increase while those with negative impacts, decreases.

Example to this is a person that changes friends. If the old friends like a particular thing and the new ones like another thing, there is a high chance that the person will start to like what the new friends like and discard that of his or her old friends.

Cognitive theory is involved with development of a person’s intelligence. It is believed that during childhood, there is an active role that is involved (Austrian, 2008). It is basically the nature of intelligence and the manner in which human beings construct and use it.

This theory is evidenced by an infant while growing up. He or she gets intrigued by properties of the objects and a lot of things made of the objects. This develops a certain behavior in the infants.

Biological Ecological Approaches is based on genetics that determines a person’s personality. Personality traits are based on hierarchy, with more traits providing more superficial array of traits. Empirical traits come mainly from heritability studies and temperaments from children.

I as an example to this theory had a tendency of being controlled by what surrounded me. I came to learn that the environment triggered physiological arousal. This could make me shy or feel uneasy in a social situation.

Dynamic Systems theory deals with long-term quantitative dynamic systems’ behavior. It does not focus on seeking exact solutions to equations that defines hopeless dynamic system, rather to give answers to possible steady states and the system’s long-term behavior (Austrian, 2008).

This is evidenced by adolescents whose behavior is influenced by relationships of the family, media, peer, and hormones, which changes their brain function, genes, sleeping patterns, and cultural forms.

Psychoanalytic theory summarizes that personalities arises from the attempt to resolve the conflicts that arises between aggressive and unconscious sexual impulses, coupled with societal demands aimed at restraining these impulses.

Example to this is explained by a person conscious and preconscious. These are the sounds he or she can hear, hunger, pain or thirst felt. Preconscious mind records past experiences without awareness (Austrian, 2008).

My childhooddevelopment ideal theory is the cognitive theory. The theorydescribes coordination a child’s touch and vision. Thiscoordination helps in improvement of logic between the end and themeans. It presents an important childhood development stage, which isreferred to as “proper intelligence” (Austrian, 2008). At thisstage, it easily encapsulates my belief that the first intelligencebegin from as early as infant stage.

References

Austrian, S. G. (2008). Developmental theories through the lifecycle. New York: Columbia University Press.

Developmental Theories

DevelopmentalTheories

Approach

Theorist

Underlying Model

Theoretical Beliefs/Assumptions

Key Terms

Example

Humanistic

This is a term in psychology that relates to an approach, which studies the whole of a person and uniqueness of every individual.

The theory emphasizes on studying a person by looking at the behavior, not only from an observer’s side, but also through the person’s eyes

Humans are different from all other organisms in that they entirely control themselves.

-Self-actualization.

-Hierarchy of needs.

-Holistic approach

An example to this theory is when Erin believes she is a generous person, yet she is very stingy with what she owns. She does not tip when dining in restaurants, but by attributing her behavior to the bad service offered, she can keep the self-concept of generosity while avoiding anxiety.

Behavioristic

Behavioristic theory only studies observable behavior. Focus on personality is only based on explanations and learning. (Austrian, 2008). Behaviors with positive impacts tend to increase while those with negative impacts, decreases.

Behavior has been separated into units called responses and environment into stimuli

If psychology is to be a science, data has to be directly observable and measurable.

Classical.

Operant.

Example to this is a person that changes his/her friends. If the old friends like a particular thing and the new ones like another thing, the highest probability will be that the person will start to like what the new friends like and discard that of his or her old friends.

Cognitive

Cognitive theory is basically the nature of intelligence and the manner in which human beings construct and use it.

Cognitive structure included memory, attention, mental capacity, social influence, and self-regulation.

It is believed that during childhood, there is an active role that is involved.

-Cognition.

-Adaptation

-Assimilation

-Schemas

-Cognitive stages

This theory is evidenced by an infant while growing up. He or she gets intrigued by properties of the objects and a lot of things made of the objects. This develops a certain behavior in the infants.

Biological -EcologicalApproach

It’s based on genetics that determines a person’s personality. Empirical traits come mainly from heritability studies and temperaments from children.

Set of nested structures contains four levels of context that influence children.

Personality traits are based on hierarchy, with more traits providing more superficial array of traits.

-Exosystem.

-Microsystem

-Exosystem.

-Mesosystem.

An example of this theory had a tendency of being controlled by what surrounded me. I came to learn that the environment triggered physiological arousal. This could make me shy or feel uneasy in a social situation.

Dynamic Systems

It deals with long-term quantitative dynamic systems’ behavior.

Interaction between all levels of developing system that happen in different time scales.

It does not focus on seeking exact solutions to equations that define hopeless dynamic system, but rather to give answers to possible steady states and the system’s long-term behavior

-order in complexity

-patterns that live and change in time and space

-the whole is more than the sum of its parts.

This is evidenced by adolescents whose behavior is influenced by relationships of the family, media, peer, and hormones, which changes their brain function, genes, sleeping patterns, and cultural forms.

Psychoanalytic

Psychoanalytic theory summarizes that personalities arise from the attempt to resolve the conflicts that arises between aggressive and unconscious sexual impulses, coupled with societal demands aimed at restraining these impulses.

Personality developments proceeds through a series of stages.

Early childhood is a significant stage of development.

Epigenetic principle.

Example to this is explained by a person’s conscious and preconscious form. These are the sounds he or she can hear, hunger, pain or thirst felt. Preconscious mind records past experiences without awareness

My Ideal Theory

My childhood development ideal theory is the cognitive theory. The theory describes coordination a child’s touch and vision. This coordination helps in the improvement of logic between the end and the means.

Cognitive structure included memory, attention, mental capacity, social influence, and self-regulation.

It presents an important childhood development stage, which is referred to as “proper intelligence”.

-Cognition.

-Adaptation

-Assimilation

-Schemas

-Cognitive stages

This theory is evidenced by an infant while growing up. He or she gets intrigued by properties of the objects and a lot of things made of the objects. This develops a certain behavior in the infants.

Reference

Austrian,S. G. (2008). Developmental theories through the life cycle. NewYork: Columbia University Press.