Describe the dual-processing model regarding grief. Explain how this model may explain how some variations may differ across cultures.


Describethe dual-processing model regarding grief. Explain how this model mayexplain how some variations may differ across cultures.

Thedual-processing model regarding grief has the following twocomponents.

  • Loss orientation

  • Restoration orientation

Thedual processing model suggests that the person keeps moving betweenthe above two emotions – loss and restoration (Ross, 1969).Sometimes he or she will be in a loss orientation. Other times, he orshe will be in a restoration orientation. This is different from thesingle processing model which suggests that the person will be onetype of mood.

Duringthe loss orientation stage, the person will come to terms with theloss. It is during this time that the person will cry, spend a lot oftime being upset. This is when things get really visual and graphic.Some people may even get violent. During the restoration phase, theperson becomes a little more practical. The person will look at thefinancial and related practical effects of that person’s loss.

Forinstance, if the main bread winner is the person who has gone, thatwould impact the rest of the family. Instead of crying about what hashappened, the non-bread winner will have to step up. Start figuringout how to meet the financial needs.

Describethe Kübler-Ross five stages of dying. Explain the differences if anyin how the different age groups may deal with end-of-life such asadolescence and older adults.

Thefive stages are the following.

  • Denial and isolation.

  • Anger

  • Bargaining

  • Depression

  • Acceptance

Accordingto Ross (1969) the five stages of dying sort of have a progressionsystem to them that goes on with age. It also has something to dowith the mental state of the person. Suppose a person is reallyyoung. He does not really understand cause and effect. Under suchcircumstances, he may not understand why death is happening.

Ifa person is the main bread winner, and is responsible for a family,he will think differently. At this point, he already understands whydeath is happening. However, his priorities have changed. He wants tomake sure that another person is better off.

Inthe last case of acceptance, a person has realized that everythingthat has a beginning has an end. So, he is ready. Overall, agedefinitely has an impact on how people think about dying.


Ross,E. (1969). Five stages of dying. In On death and dying. New York: TheMacmillan Company.