CRIMINAL JUSTICE QUESTIONS 5
Thereare four groups of alcohol and drug users that are classified basedon the type and level of use of the addictive substances. The firstgroup is the experimental users. These are users who use alcohol anddrugs as an experiment to experience a taste of the substances ofabuse and alcohol. They take the drugs and alcohol to satisfy theircuriosity of getting to know how the drugs and alcohol taste andaffect a person. The second group is the recreational users. Theseusers consume alcohol and use drugs to feel relaxed and feel good.According to Bartollas and Miller (2011), most of the recreationalusers engage in drugs and take alcohol because of the influence oftheir peers. As a result of the company, they feel the pleasure fromalcohol of drugs, as they take them together with the peers ofinfluence.
Thethird group is the hard core users. The hard core users, are thosethat engage in drugs in a manner that is strongly affective to thebody. They take hard drugs as a way of satisfying the hard drugquests. These people take alcohol that is not only addictive, butstrong since their urge for alcohol is strong. The fourth group ofdrug and alcohol users is the addict users. The addicts are fullydependent on the substance of abuse. According to Bartollas andMiller (2011), addicts cannot operate their normal lives without theuse of the drugs they are addicted to or the alcohol they areaddicted to. The addicts find it hard to avoid the drugs or alcoholbecause the withdrawal syndromes are severe. The withdrawal symptomscause painful symptom that make the addicts return back to the use ofdrugs or substances.
Thetimeline for urban gangs stems in the late nineteenth century and theearly twentieth century, when the first generation gangs existed intowns. At this time, the gangs were aimed at gaining money bysteeling in the street businesses as well as the businesses thatexisted in the industrial urban centers (Holmeset al, 2011).The gangs were not fighting each other as they executed their planswithout fight with other gangs. However, in the mid twentiethcentury, gangs started developing the characteristics of gang rivalryand competition that led to territories. The territories created bythe gangs were based on the need to control certain sections ofstreets in urban areas.
Atthe current time, the gangs are dominant in the territories that theyseek to control. The membership of these gangs in modern day seems tobe reducing in number. This is because of the increased activity ofthe security forces and law enforcement agents to suppress theactivities of the gangs (Holmeset al, 2011).Unlike before, the gangs have been targeted by security agentsthrough the employment of new security strategies. Moreover, thesuccess of the criminal justice system has seen the prevention of thegang systems through jailing of those found guilty (Holmeset al, 2011).Moreover, the attitude of the society has changed to favor theefforts of the law enforcement officers to quell the problem ofgangs.
Themost common age of those who freshly join gangs are the adolescent.However, most of the adolescent join the youth gangs in the urbansettings. One of the reasons why the adolescent join gangs is becauseof the peer pressure that comes from their friends and relatives whoare already members of the gangs (Holmeset al, 2011).For instance, some of the members of the gangs attend the sameschools that the target adolescents attend. In addition, the need forfame and recognition among the peers is also a reason for enteringinto a gang. As a result of peers, they adopt the behaviors of theirpeers as they seek supremacy among them. The best way to convince theyouth to give up their gang membership is to help them to manage peerpressure and make their own decisions.
Inaddition, the desire for quick money and wealth influences theadolescent to engage in crime and gangs. The gangs promise theadolescent youth quick money and wealth to live the lives they desireaway from their parents. As they venture into crime, they becomevulnerable for arrests and friction with other criminals (Holmeset al, 2011).As a result, their crimes create a need for togetherness andprotection from other people who are interested in their criminalacts. Consequently, they enter into the existing gangs so that theycan get the protection. In addition, they feel the gangs will earnthem money and promote their criminal acts by training them how toventure into crime at deeper levels. Therefore, the best way toconvince the youth to give up gang membership is by giving up crimeand counseling them about money and wealth.
Moreover,drug abuse and alcoholism leads to the involvement of the adolescentin youth gangs. According to Holmeset al (2011), theproblem of drug abuse leads to the engagement into gangs that makethe vulnerable adolescent members. As they take the drugs, theydesire more and more in supply, leading to the discovery of the gangsthat supply or control the sale of the drugs in the urban centers orin the neighborhoods. Therefore, the best way to entice the youth togive up gang membership is to help them to avoid the use of drugs andalcoholism.
Bartollas,C., & Miller, S.J. (2011). Juvenilejustice in America (6th ed.).Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall
Holmes,R.M., Tewksbury, R., & Higgins, G. (2011). Introductionto Gangs in America. Florida:CRC Press