ChinaCulture Case Study
Theinterviewee of this study was a female aged 30 years from china. Forsecurity purposes, I gave her a pseudo name Anna. She came to theUnited States in search of quality education and better livingstandards six years ago. However, she is still loyal to her cultureeven though it is quite different from the culture exhibited in theUnited States.
Thisstudy was conducted to purposely understand the roles of families inChina. In order to get the answers to the questions, I asked thesubject various questions that I had prepared. I even asked her toadd more details that she thought were relevant with regard to theroles of families in China. Anna was first asked the permissionbefore interviewing her so that she could give all the requireddetails. The questions were general about China and did not touch onpersonal aspects to make the interview more professional.
Chinais recorded as the most populous country in the world with over 1.35billion people. It covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometersmaking it the second largest country globally. China has a continuousculture that can for nearly 4000 years. Many of the factors that ledto the modern china include gunpowder, credit banking and paper.Although it has gone through economic hardships in the past, china isbelieved to be the fastest growing economy worldwide. It isundergoing what economists describe as the second industrialrevolution. It has launched various ambitious programs aimed atimproving its economy. Currently, it is emerging as one of the topexporters hence, it is attracting many foreign investors bothlocally and abroad.
What is your gender, name, and age?
Do you speak other languages?
What would you describe your culture?
What stereotypes do people hold about your culture?
Are there things that you feel are outdated in country? If so, what are they?
Would you change anything about your culture given a chance? If so, what are they?
What are the challenges you face in America since you are a minority group? If any, what do you do to cope?
a.Who is in a `family`? Who among these (or others) live in one house?
b.What is the hierarchy of authority in the family?
c.What are the rights and responsibilities of each family member? Dochildren have an obligation to work to help the family?
d.What are the functions and obligations of the family in the largersocial unit? To the school? To its individual members?
e.What is the relative importance of an individual family member vs.the family as a whole? What is the degree of solidarity orcohesiveness in the family?
a.Is language competence a requirement or qualification for groupmembership?
b.How do people greet each other? What forms of address are usedbetween people in various roles?
c.Do girls work and interact with boys? Is it proper?
d.How is deference shown?
e.How are insults expressed?
f.Who may disagree with whom? Under what circumstances?
g.Are mitigating forms used?
a.What is considered sacred and what secular?
b.What religious roles and authority are recognized in the community?
c.What is the role of children in religious practices? What are theysupposed to know or not to know about the religion?
d.What should an outsider not know, or not acknowledge knowing?
e.What taboos are there? What should not be discussed in school whatquestions should not be asked what student behaviors should not berequired?
f.Are there any external signs of participation in religious rituals(e.g., ashes, dress, marking)?
g.Are dietary restrictions to be observed, including fasting, onparticular occasions?
h.Are there any prescribed religious procedures or forms ofparticipation if there is a death in the family? What taboos areassociated with death and the dead?
Forthe interview, we began with an introduction to dispel any fears ordoubts that the subject may have. We began with general questionsabout how she felt about her culture. She described her culture withpassion and claimed to respect it despite the negativity from themainstream American society. She began by telling us about her familyand how much they value it. She told us that the main religion in hercountry is Confucianism, which her family value greatly. However,they also tolerate other religious groups such as Christians,Muslims, and Buddhists, although there are not many. One thing thatcaught our attention about china is that majority of people areatheists. This is strange because most countries have a dominantreligion that guides most people. However, Anna confided to us asbeing Confucius.
Whenasked about the things she would change about her culture, Anna saidthat she liked almost everything. She loves her home country andwould not mind going back after she is done with her studies. I mustadmit she is one of the few people who are willing to maintain theirnot so popular culture in America. Never had I seen anyone who lovesher background as Anna. She brushed when we asked her about thechallenges she faces as a Chinese in America. The first thing shesaid is that people make fun of them claiming that they look alikeand it is difficult to distinguish one person to another. She alsodescribed that many people tend to discriminate them claiming thatthey are too traditional and that they feast on animals such as catsand dogs. Anna confirmed that this is not true and people shouldlearn to accept them without forming obscene stereotypes. Othersbelieve that Chinese people are very good in sciences andmathematics. However, as confirmed by Anna, this is not the case. Infact, she confessed to us that she has never liked mathematics muchbecause she is not that good. Although this is a positive stereotype,people always come with science or mathematics questions expectingyou to answer them even when you do not know the answers. Anna feltthat people should take time to learn about others before makingjudgments about them.
Oursubject told us that she faces many challenges both in school andoutside. People refer to them with funny names that resemble somecommon words in their language. In addition, there are people lookdown upon them regarding them as inferior. In addition, some peopleclaim that Chinese can never be good in English because their genesdo not allow them to. Anna told us that she tries her best to brushoff the negative energy directed towards them. Sometimes it isimpossible to ignore them because even some lecturers have noted themas being poor in English. As a way of encouraging each other, theyhave formed a group of Chinese where they share their challenges andhow to overcome them. These groups have helped them to become supportone another and survive is the atmosphere where racisms is high.However, our subject confirmed to us that not everyone hates on them.Other people from other races have continuously embraced them overtime. Some understand them and encourage them to fight the negativecriticism directed at them. She adds that since she came to Americasix years ago, she has seen a big change in the way people perceivethem. The first time she came to America, racism was rampant and theenvironment was not very welcoming for Chinese people. She hasrealized that people are embracing them gradually and are giving themthe respect they deserve.
Wenoted that Anna was very positive about her culture. She did not letthe popular culture influence her beliefs for over six years. It istrue that she has changed over the years, but her culture is out ofbounds. She loves her country and family that brought her up. She hasa great desire to return back to china where she will provide herservices to her people.
Oneof the most valuable things in China is family. It is the mostrespected institution and goes beyond to include the nuclear family.This strong institutionalization of the family has made it morecentral in the society more than any other. The traditional Chinesefamilies include patriarchal, patrilineal, kinship group, sharing acommon household budget, and normatively extended.
TheChinese families are partilineal whereby a child’s heritageemanates from the father only. Men are the only people that couldinherit family land, membership, and other forms of familyinheritance. Once a woman marries into a certain family, she gets themembership of that family. In the traditional settings, male childrenwere regarded with high esteem. Lack of a male in a family was seenas a great misfortune. In all families, people who were of age buthad no children of their own were looked down upon. This shows thatchildren are highly valued amongst Chinese families and people mayseek to marry for such reasons. Any man or woman would do anythingpossible in the traditional settings to bear children in order to beaccepted and respected by the society.
Thefamilies of Chinese are also patriarchal, that is, they arehierarchically organized. The prime authority lies with the seniormost male of the family, who is responsible for the management of thefamily. There are not two people within a family have equalauthority. Depending on when one was born and gender, each person hashis or her own role to play. The superior generations are given moreauthorities over the junior authorities. Also notable is that menwere superior to their female counterparts regardless of who isolder. Even when the mother was widowed, the older son would resumeresponsibility of the family although the mother has a great role toplay. However, Anna confirmed to us that time are changing and thatthe widowed mothers dominate and manage their households.Collectively, every member of the family has a role to play andcontribute to the welfare of the family. The other thing worth notingwith this organization is that whenever there was a conflict, thewill of the superior prevailed over that of the inferior familymembers. Children are required to obey their superiors at all timesbecause the superiors are thought to be right because they have anexperience of life and are thus wise. Traditionally, the superiorswere given more respect even in their death. The death of parents wasconsidered to be one of the greatest griefs and called for a longperiod of mourning. However, the death of a child was did not attractmuch grief. In fact, in some traditions, it was inappropriate togrief over the death of a child because the child’s death wasconsidered unfiliality. When alive, one’s parents were given somesacrifices to celebrate their heroism.
Thetraditional Chinese people have high values for marriage. Whenever ayoung couple married, it is that they should live with the groom’sfamily. It was expected for every man in the family to marry andbring the bride to the family. On the other hand, every young womanin the family was expected to get married and leave the family to goand join her husband. The changing of the families was a great eventfor every woman. It was not easy for a young woman to leave herchildhood family and join a strange one. This is an emotional eventwhereby a woman gets new roles in another family. There is usually acelebration to send off the bride and sometimes it includes soberingfor the younger sisters and the unmarried friends. Traditionally,there were other arrangements that were made in case the family ofthe groom was economically inconvenienced. In such cases, the groomwas allowed to live in the bride’s family. Sometimes it wouldrequire the groom to change his surname, which f course woulddisgrace his parents. This was done as the last resort and wasunpopular amongst Chinese people.
Kinshipis another thing that makes up Chinese family. This means that allfamily members are either related genealogically by sharing a commonancestor, or by marriage. These people could have their resources orcould conduct activities not shared by the outsiders. Family shouldnot be confused with household people may live in the same buildingor area but that does not mean that they are families. They could betenants, apprentices, or tenants. Some family members of Chinesepeople may live in different households, but the bind they share ishighly valued. Separation due to factors such as seeking distanteducation for long does not break the bond. Family members who goaway from their households for various reasons come back and arehighly celebrated. Every member of the family is not expected toforget where he or she came from under any circumstances.
Theother thing that Anna clarified to us about families is the greatvalue for a son. Since time memorial, every a family that lacked ason was allowed to adopt a son of a close relative to bear the familyname. It was undesirable to adopt a son from unrelated peoplehowever, it happened in some cases. When we asked Anna about theadoption of an extra daughter, she claimed that this is unheard of.Sons were highly valued and any family without a son was willing togo to extra lengths to have a son of their own. There is this stringbelieve that a son is a very important person in a family because heensures that a lineage is not lost. This did not come as a surprisebecause we have heard many traditional societies where people wouldhave very many children in an attempt to have a mail child. Maybethis is one of the roots of male chauvinism in the society.
Allmembers within a household share a common budget. This indicates thatincome expenses and possessions were pooled together a decision abouthow on distribution reached by all household members. Thecontribution largely depends on the member’s incomes andresponsibilities. The head of the family was in most casesresponsible for most of the house bills. He is required to feed forhis family with the help of the wife and other older children.Sometimes the budget goes beyond to include other family members indifferent households. For instance, some family members may stay inshop in town and other in the village. Depending on what is broughton the table, the budget can be shared amongst family members. Budgetsharing is not only for economic purposes, but is also believed tobring luck family to the family. It also signifies a strong bindamong family members. Family division is highly discouraged inamongst the traditional Chinese people who have high regards forfamilies. However, in some cases, this is unavoidable. The deaths ofsenior members sometimes bring about this division, which is oftenconsidered as the last resort.
SomeChinese people may be excluded from families due to circumstancessuch as madness and flight from the law. Such people were left toloiter around the world without being regarded by the family. Often,outsiders were regarded with a mixture of contempt, pity, andsuspicion. Such people could not attain positions in the society.This leaves them with the opportunity to live in the margins of thesociety as beggars, prostitutes, and casual laborers. This was acommon practice amongst the traditional Chinese people however, withmodernity this has changes. An outsider can work hard and fed forhim/herself without fear.
Marriageamongst the traditional Chinese people is a necessary phenomenon thatmust be pursued. Anna confirmed to us that these traditions are stillprevalent among the villages where she comes from. Although peopletoday increasingly find their own spouses, there are instances wheremarriages are arranged. Arranged marriages were common in the pastand still happen in some families. Traditionally, marriage was notjust for love, but for providing a family with a surname and alineage. It was a practice of a woman joining a new family to play anessential part in the new family. The women were responsible forpaying the dowry to their husbands through a ritual that would makethe couple legally married. This marriage is different from what mostof us know today. It was more of family businesses than merely acouple bonding. The arranged marriages were in most cases thedecisions of the concerned families and relatives. However, in somecases, professional matchmakers were sought. They were paid to make amatch by analyzing various factors. There were some famousmatchmakers who were sought in many cases and were paid highly fortheir services.
Agedifference has always been a great factor of consideration whengetting, with the woman slightly younger than the man. Nevertheless,this was overlooked by matchmakers due to two main factors. The firstreason is that an older man may wish to have a younger woman as awife or concubine. A man willing to accept low dowry or pay a highpride price was considered in the matchmaking. The other reason wasthat a woman would marry a younger boy with an attempt of raisinghim. This was more common among the adopted daughters in laws. Itshould be noted that this tradition is only practiced in the ruralvillages and dying slowly with modernity.
TraditionalChinese people believe in the solidarity of families. Families havealways been considered as a basic social unit in the society untilrecently. Families and other kin groups offered a framework fororganizing the relationships in general. Ancestors were honored,children were raised, income was well managed, elders were well takencare of, and other relevant things were well sought within thefamily.
TheChinese people are expected to be competent in their language. Annaconfirmed that there are some form of languages that were not allowedin interpersonal relationships especially that can trigger a fight orabusive. People are expected to relate with others in a politelanguage using polite words. The way the young ones relate withadults is different from how they relate among themselves. Childrenare required to obey their adults and refer to them using politewords. This is a form of respect, which is highly regarded ininterpersonal relationships. There are specific names that childrenneed to use when referring to adults rather calling them buy theirnames. Respect is a highly valued and should be observed at all casesand anywhere.
Greetingsin everyday life are another great thing that must be observed whenrelating with others. The correct way of greeting people is crucialin Chinese. An inappropriate greeting is undesirable and reflects badmanners. The most accepted way of greeting among Chinese ishandshake, which does only convey a sign of welcome, butencouragement, gratitude and congratulation. Whenever two peoplemeet, they are required to greet each other warmly before proceeding.Children are also required to greet their elders first and mustportray a form of respect for them. The other most useful way ofgreeting is a slight bow or a nod. When Chinese meet each other, theylower their eyes a little bit to indicate respect. Staring each otherdirectly into the eyes may make one comfortable hence not desirablewhen greeting. As a sign of respect and concern too, Chinese peopleuse a greeting of ‘have you eaten’. This also shows thefamiliarity to the centrality of food among these people.
Referringto others is also formal among the Chinese people. Children areforbidden from addressing their adults using their given names. Theyare supposed to address their elders using their designations such asDoctor, Mr., and Chairman etc. Use of family or generational name mayalso be used as a sign of respect. It is appropriate to avoid usingsomeone’s name as much as possible unless for age mates who haveknow each other for a long time. This tradition has always beenobserved amongst Chinese people for a long time and is stillprevalent in many communities. It is considered bad manners for achild to refer to an adult by his or her name. In fact, it looks oddand not many people have attempted that. However, this tradition ischanging thanks to the modern life and urban migration where valuesare increasingly degrading.
Whena woman gets married, she retains her name, and only uses herhusband’s in formal occasions. It is most appropriate to introducethe familiar to the unfamiliar in formal occasions. In addition, thejuniors are also introduced to the seniors in that order as sign ofrespect. Whenever unfamiliar people are introduced, it is a commonpractice to start talking about common topics such as food, hobbies,and weather to start off. The other factor worth noting is thatexchanging of gifts in public is considered unsuitable except forthings that serve as souvenirs.
Useof gestures is also common among Chinese people as confirmed by Anna.The most common and oldest gesture is cupping of one’s hands as aform of salute. However, dramatic facial expressions and exaggeratedgestures should be avoided. The use of gestures when speaking maymake communication difficult for the most reserved Chinese groups.The other thing that is crucial that should be put clearly is thattouching should be avoided unless a sound relationship has beenformed. It is also believed that touching a child’s head may hinderdevelopment. People observe other’s space and try as much aspossible not to touch each other. Public touching of people isdisregarded and highly discouraged.
Whenpointing, Chinese people encourage using of whole hand, rather thanone finger. It is inappropriate for people to use one finger as itshows lack of respect. It is also considered harsh and may make oneuncomfortable. If you beckon or call someone, it is appropriate toturn palm down and wave your hand towards the body. Hands and faceshave a lot in common when gesturing or communicating. When offeredsomething, one is expected to take it using both hands to signifyrespect and gratitude. On the other hand, it is expected one to handin important objects using two hands. They should be handed directlyto a person directly rather than putting them down on the table. Thisis a great sign of respect and formality among Chinese people.
Annaalso added that a Chinese host should gesture for the guest toproceed first at the entrance of the door. The guests are treatedwith utmost respect irrespective of their positions and age. They areserved well and made comfortable in the house. When it is time forthem to leave, the host sees them to the entrance at the level least.This is more so for the first or for the formal visits. The furtheryou see your guest off, the more you show them respect. In turn, theguest may decline the courtesy by saying that there is no need to beseen off. When the guest leaves after seeing him or her off, it isappropriate to tell them goodbye, come again, and or go carefully.Certainly, respect for guests is something that should not be takenlightly. People are accustomed to treating their guests well andclaim that this is a form of blessing. Therefore, receiving guestsand visiting each other is a custom so common among Chinese peopleespecially those who belief in building strong relationships.
Thegender roles of boys and girls among Chinese, until recently, havebeen controversial. The male child is highly favored as compared tothe female child. Women have been regarded as the weaker gender withmale as the most superior beings. Traditionally, the woman issupposed to obey and give utmost respect to three men of his lifefather, husband, and son when widowed. Women were supposed to stay athome and take care of their families while their husbands providedfor the families. It was the duty of women to cook, look after theirchildren, and do all the house chores without complaining. They weresupposed to cook their husbands the best dish and take it to themwith much respect. Whatever the husband said was supposed to beobeyed even if it was to oppress the woman. Women were supposed tobear all these having in mind that divorce was the last option. Inmany cases, in case of a divorce, it was the woman who was blamed anddisregarded. This is why many women would stay in oppressed marriagesin an attempt to win favor with the society. However, this haschanged over time in the cities and among the modern people. Womenhave risen up to show men that they are also strong and can dobetter. The ideals of men as the strong gender have slowlydiminished. The one child policy has also made it easy for women torise up and prove themselves.
Therelationship between boys and girls has long been condemned by theelders. In the traditional rural settings, boy and girls are requiredto stay away from each other as much as possible. Relationships inthe past were not allowed as they were seen as a way of promotingimmorality. It was the decision of the families to decide who theirchildren would marry. There was nothing like courtship, although thisis slowly changing the light of the modern society. Marriage was notas a result of love, but obligation. This is why romanticrelationships between boys and girls were highly disregarded in theChinese community. However, in the modern society, girls and boyshave a chance to choose their partners with a little guidance fromparents. Many girls prefer boys who are taller, while boys prefergirls with a fine complexion and good body shape. Girls also look formen who can provide them with financial and emotional security. Thismeans that a stable man may be considered as compared with to ahandsome and a taller man. But as time progresses, women areincreasingly becoming independent thanks to education and westerninfluences.
Traditionally,Chinese parents play an active role in raising their children. Theyhave a great influence on the wellbeing of their children. Theseparents are overprotective of their children and would jump at anychance to discipline them. Since the introduction of the one childpolicy, each parent wants the best for his or her child. Anna notesthat when she was growing up, her mother never kept her cane awayfrom her. Doing a slight mistake would always result to a toughdiscipline that she loathed with all her heart. She also notes thatrarely did her mother use the word I love you. She was very strictjust as mothers who were attempting to instill discipline in theirchildren. However, as Anna notes, parents have an indirect ways ofshoeing love to their children. Mothers show a great concern fortheir children and are willing to go to greater extents to show it.While Anna was a child, she did not understand this and she oftenthought that her parents were very strict, heartless, and mean. Shenow understands that what her parents did was the best for herfuture. They wanted her to grow with discipline so that she couldbecome a good and respectable person when she grows up. Discipline isa common practice among Chinese families especially due to one childpolicy. Parents do not want their single child to get spoilt and missthe opportunities of a bright future. Chinese parents love their andtreasure their children with a great passion. They are willing tosuffer for them so that they can have a bright future and everythingthey require at their disposal.
Sincethe ancient days, China has always been a multi religion countryhosting a number of religions. Confucianism is the most prevalentreligion, which is that has been practiced for a long time. It is thesoul of Chinese culture that is enjoyed by many people and forms theideals of the society. It has made the country tolerant to otherreligious beliefs that have been developed over time. Buddhism isalso a common religion among the Chinese people. Other religions suchas Muslim and Islamic are tolerated though very few people belong tothese religions.
Annabelongs to the Confucius religion. Confucianism is a religion basedon the teachings of one of the philosophers named Confucius. Someclaim that this is more of an ethical belief than a religion becauseit based on relationships. According to Confucius, every relationshiphas a dual aspect of obligation and responsibility. This means thatevery relationship between husband and wife, parent and child, sisterand brother, all have obligations and responsibilities. Confucianismgoes beyond the family relationships to include other relationshipssuch as subject and ruler, bureaucrat and civilian, and individualswith the state. Observation of these obligations and responsibilitiesbrings in a harmonious and just society. Typically, Confucianismfoundation is based on the three principles: the king as the masterof the ministry, the father as the master of the son, and the husbandas the master of wife. Specific duties were all prescribed to theparticipants in each of the mentioned relationships. Such duties werealso extended to the death, which led to veneration of ancestors.Filial piety was also institutionalized in the Confucianism beliefthat led to the establishment of legal system. In such a system, acriminal would attract a harsher punishment if he or she committed acrime against his or her seniors. These aims at bringing order in thesociety where everyone respects each other under differentcircumstances.
Theother main founding principle of Confucianism is humanness in allangles. In this case, a person is expected to do unto others what heor she would like to be treated in return. Human beings have thecapacity to distinguish between good actions from bad actions. Theruler should be just and refrain as much as possible not to actinhumanly towards his subjects. Confucius claims that a ruler who isinhuman should not be obeyed. On the other hand, a ruler who is jutsshould be obeyed by all. A society must be just for it to prevail andimpose humanity. Therefore, all relationships should consider theaspect of humanity for them to remain strong. Confucius alsodescribes the perfect gentleman as one who is moral, participates incorrect rituals, cultivates humaneness, and shows loyalty and filialpiety.
Confucianismis bases on five constant virtues namely: wisdom, credibility,goodness, ritual, and rightness. Goodness includes things such asforgiveness, tolerance, deference, obedience, honesty and the likes.It further includes good relationships between people. Rightness isanother virtue that promotes Confucius teachings. A person shouldensure that he or she knows the rights as opposed to what pays. Thisis called personal loyalty when a person decides to give up intereststo seek rightness. In this notion, we see friendship as not just arelationship but an obligation. Additionally, people should beregulated by rituals. Governing people by force leads to loss of selfrespect. On the other hand, governing people using moral force bringsabout self respect and harmony. The most respected form ofrelationship is one that is harmonious and respectful. Wisdom andknowledge is something that is highly valued in a harmoniousrelationship. People should strive to be knowledgeable for them topromote goodness in the society. Finally, credibility is a greatvirtue in every relationship. It means that people do what they sayand are ready to prove their trustworthy.
Ingeneral, Confucianism is a religion or an ethical belief thatpromotes total good of the society. It is based on the aspects ofmaintaining good relationships by doing what is right and just. Itpromotes the wellbeing of others in relation to each other. Thebelievers of Confucianism consider family values as very important.Children learn from their elders at an early age to be respectful andmindful of others. The ideal of this religion is to promote aharmonious society with good interpersonal relationships.
Annaconfirms to us that there are no taboos in Confucianism. There are nothings such as worshipping, diet restrictions, religious procedures,and rituals. Confucianism is simply a way of life whose mainobjective is to bring about a harmonious society. It is similar toother religious beliefs that promote the wellbeing of people.However, this is much simple because the main idea is doing what isright without restrictions such as when and how to worship. It is assimple as observing one’s actions and ensuring that you maintainsound relationships with each other. Responsibilities and obligationsare the most important elements that lead to the total good of thesociety.
Annasays that this belief is simple and good for the society. Even thewesterners and many other people around the world are increasinglyjoining this religion or rather ethical practice. There are nocomplicated rules and restrictions safe for observing obligations andresponsibilities of people in their relationships. Anna confirms thatthis is why this belief is very popular among China people. It alsoexplains why people have string family values and ties that boundfamilies. I found this religion interesting and less complicated aslong as you do what is right. It does not discriminate andaccommodates all people as long as they have good intentions. I nowunderstand why china people are accommodative and peaceful people andhave you will rarely see them concerned about religious matters.Their only religion is simply being the best they can be andpromoting the same unto others.
Whenwe discussed with Anna about her culture, we touched on expectationsand aspirations of both parents and children. She explained to usthat parents expect their children to be the best that they can.Since the implementations of one child policy, many families haveonly one child. This means that every parent want that one child tobe the best by all means. They want it to get the best education,best manners, and maintain high discipline. No single parent wantshis or her child to suffer or fail in life. On the other hand,children try their best to achieve in education and life as well.Although not all make it higher education standards, many try theirbest.
Annaexplained to us that parents treasure their children because mosthave one. They do their best to discipline them and teach them theways of china culture. Anna claimed that her family was so supportiveof her but very strict. They tried their level best to put her ingood schools. They also struggled to raise money for her to studyabroad as she was not given a full scholarship. I asked her what herparents think of her studying and working abroad. She said that herparents wanted her to study and then return back home to work there.Since her whole family is back in china, she says she might go backand work in her home country. Although she would want to work here inAmerica, circumstances might force her to go back.
Annais married and has no child yet. Both the parents and the husband arepressuring her to have a child because they feel that she is growingold. Anna also confirmed to us that her parents rushed her to marryso she could start a family while still young. However, she did notfeel ready and wanted to pursue her education and career first.Another main reason why she was rushed into marrying is that herparents felt that she should not leave her country without gettingmarried lest she decides against getting married. She also told ushow her parents are worried that she might leave her husband anddecide to marry here in America. Anna confided in us that she wouldnever do that unless her husband does that. She believes in thechastity of marriage and is ready to go back and start her family.Alternatively, she might call her husband in the United States forthe m to leave. However, this is the last option because she lovesher home country despite that it is not as developed as America. Sheexpects to make her parents and husband happy as part of herresponsibilities and obligations.
Inevery research, there are some limitations. In this case, thelimitation is that this is a qualitative study as opposed toquantitative. This means that the data may not be applied for all thepopulation. However, in our case, this data may represent a hugepopulation of Chinese people. It gives details regarding the cultureof china both in the modern and traditional societies.
Secondly,this was my first interview with a person from a different culture. Iwas a bit scared and may not have presented myself very well.However, I later came to realize that Anna was a very accommodativeperson and easy to talk to. I may have scared her a little bit when Iasked her about the interview as she took some time to respond.
Biasnessis another big limitation when carrying out an interview. When Idecided to study China culture, I was afraid that I might notrecognize my interviewee because of the stereotype that they lookalike. I was biased and thought that I already knew the answers tothe questions. This can influence a study greatly because one mayhave the wrong answers in head.
Inaddition, time was a limiting factor. I had too many questions thatneeded to be answered in depth. However, I could not do that in asingle day because we both had other activities to attend to. I hadto question her for two days and this was a bit inconveniencing. Idid not get as much time as I needed with her. However, I must saythat she was informative and we utilized the little time we had tomaximum.
Throughoutthe interview, I realized that Anna had so much respect for family.She explained that family values are more important than anything inthis world. She believes that families should be put first as part ofone’s responsibilities and obligations. Family bonds with theextended members are also greatly valued. Every member of the familyshould play a role in keeping the bonds tight. Marriage is alsoparamount in China. Every person aspires to get married and have achild to showcase for it. Despite that western culture has had agreat influence on china women have much respect for their husbandsjust as it was in the traditional era. Harmonious relationships and ajust society is what every Chinese aspires.
InterestingFact: One Child Censorship
Thereis one interesting fact about Chinese the one child censorship. Themain reason behind this was to improve the economic state of china.Before the implementation of this law, approximately 54 percent ofpeople in china were living in poor conditions. It was predicted thatif the population continues to increase at a high rate essentialthings such as water, food, housing, education, and employment wouldbe unsustainable. This prompted the government to come with acensorship of one child. This was after the realization thatoverpopulation was threatening the wellbeing of the nation and itspeople as well. Poverty was high among majority of china people.Although this censorship was greatly opposed, it has helped china tomitigate its population and fight poverty. China’s economy hasimproved greatly since this censorship. The country is now able tofeed its population to sustainable levels.
Itcan be argued that the one child policy has helped china greatly toovercome the population of poverty. It should also be noted that theone child policy is not as strict as it sounds. First of all, thosewho follow the policy rules are allowed to have another child whenthe first one is 14 years and above. Families that have a girl childas the first born are allowed to have another child if they can payadditional tax of 6000 dollars. Such a child is given priority in toattend the good schools and college admission. Also worth noting isthat this policy makes it easy for children to access health care,housing, and employment (Seruya & Moniz, 2008).
However,it is notable that the government censorship on one child policy hasa great impact on families. Traditionally, China people believe inhaving many children until the government imposed the censorship onone child policy. This policy is oppressive and receives negativecriticism throughout the world. Dictating how many children oneshould have is highly unacceptable. People have their own aspirationsand cutting their dreams of large families is unacceptable. I thinkwhat the government should do is educate people on the need forhaving a manageable family rather than forcing them to have onechild. Other countries that are overpopulated emphasis more on familyplanning education and it helps in solving the issue.
Seruya,T., & Moniz, M. L. (2008). Translationand censorship in different times and landscapes.Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Pub.