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ENGINEERINGPROJECT

PROJECTTITLE

Theproject involves designing of an automated wheelchair to helpparalytic and disabled people to maneuver around the place of work orat their homes without the need for a physical assistance.

PROJECTPURPOSE AND DESCRIPTION

Theuse of a wheelchair around our homestead and working environment isquite a task even for the normal people. This project is aimed atimproving this kind of situation for both the normal people and thephysically challenged people who use wheelchairs(Burns, T. 1961. 72).However, this project addresses the situation for two groups ofpeople, the paraplegic and the paraplegic.

Theautomation of the wheelchair will allow these two groups of people tomove around their environment without physical assistance from theirfamily members or friends with ease and at their comfort. This willhelp save time and maximize on personnel utilization in the workingenvironment with much comfort and efficiency.

PROJECTOBJECTIVES

  • Easy mobility from one place to another for physically challenged people.

  • Make the physically challenged people feel more independent and not disabled.

  • Reduce the efforts of driving around with an automated wheelchair compared to the conventional wheelchair.

  • Our aim to reduce the rate of accident when moving around in a wheelchair

PROJECTSCOPE

Thisproject is mainly aimed at the young and enthusiastic youths with thedisability of moving from one habitation to another in theirsurroundings. The youths under this age blanket need to feel moreindependent when running their daily activities especially in theirproductive age towards the economy growth.

Theautomated wheelchair is meant to provide the users with variousmobility choices that are medically recommended. The active playerscan involve in various gaming activities such as basketball and tabletennis. These physical activities will lead to their muscledevelopment and even healing process for those whose complicationsare treatable at some stage.

Automatedwheelchair will have no need for physical assistance. This means anincrease in the working personnel, especially from the active andenergetic group of people who end up in other income generatingsections of the economy. Therefore, they leave the roll of drivingtheir friends or relatives around on manual wheelchairs.

HARDWAREDESIGN

ContextDiagram of Various Players in the Automation of the Wheelchair

  1. Block diagram for the voice control system

Voice source

Ultrasonic Sensor

Motor B

Relay

Power supply

Voice Recognition Kit

Controller

Motor A

Relay

Thevoice control system of the wheelchair is meant to help thetetraplegic patients who cannot move most of their muscles but canspeak. The patient can issue commands to the system using “keywords”that will help them navigate the wheelchair in motion. The four mainconditions used, in this case, move forward, move reverse, move rightand move left commands that are meant to help the patient use thewheelchair. Others include the stop and accelerate commands as wellas the start and stop commands.

Themic is a voice source that is to be used to issue commands from theuser. The voice is to be recognized at the Voice Recognition Kit thatwill communicate a signal to the controller. With the help of theultrasound sensor, it will be possible for the relay and motor to becontrolled by the motion of wheelchair or stopping the option.

  1. The obstacle sensor using eyeball sensor and microcontroller features

Thisis an additional feature for the paraplegic patients that is meant toassist them navigate through a busy environment like the workplace,office, supermarket, etc. Using these eye sensors the patient canavoid obstacles in their ways hence avoiding accidents(Crecente, R. 2002. 48).It is meant to assure the patient`s safety when using the facility tocarry on with their daily routine chores. This model will utilize thetechnology of microcontroller ports that are meant to interconnectother devices. The devices include the eye tracking sensor,Ultrasonic sensor (used to detect obstacles), accelerometer and aZigbee (wireless communication prototype) to help run the wheelchair.

Thecombined hardware application will share some of the available partssuch as the power supply and the ultrasonic sensors. The integrationof both technologies is to increase the ease of use and distributionof the wheelchairs depending on the patients’ preferences.

SOFTWAREDESIGN

Thewheelchair will utilize programmed software that enables the use ofboth sensory and voice command applications to navigate the chairaround. Through programming, a microchip developed to control thedigital signals and voice signals from the voice source(Draulans, J.2003. 95). This was done by a code that helps embed the commands.Thus, it will be possible for both tetraplegic and paraplegicpatients to use the facility.

Inthe control section, simple commands will be utilized for thedifferent generation of users. To control the directions, the usercan use the commands right[R], left[L], forward[F] and backward[B]using a button on the armchair. While for the sound commands, amention of direction will help navigate the wheelchair in theirdesired direction.

Theobstacle tracking sensor that utilizes the ability of sight will helpidentify obstacles from a distance using three parts of the eye. Thisinclude sclera, the iris, and the pupil. However, by responsetowards the different manner of incoming rays will issue a command tothe program microcontroller.

Howthe objectives are to be achieved

Thework schedule set for guidance in carrying out the project must befollowed to the letter. This is due to constraints and needs todeliver the project in time. Time is a major resource for everyproject, and so is a work plan that can only be achieved byutilization of a strict schedule for all the parties involved in thedevelopment of the project(O`Brien, K. 2002. 89).Some of the activities involved in the schedule include thefollowing

Prototypeset up

Testof available equipment

Microcontrollersetup

Modelrefinement

GUIdesign

Customdesign

Electronicmodule

CommunicationPlan

Theautomated wheelchair is specifically engineered for the tetraplegicand the paraplegic people to help them navigate around theirenvironment. It is recommended for everyone with a friend or a familymember to acquire these wheelchairs as they an advantage to allaround these physically challenged members. It helps save time andmanpower.

Hospitalsand organizations are advised to acquire these wheelchairs since theybecome a supplement to the manpower used to physically drive thepatients around the hospital halls.

Otherstakeholders include organizations that deal with the aged group ofpeople. They should consider acquiring the wheelchairs in order toboost the catering situation at their centers.

Thegovernment should also consider acquiring some of these machines todonate them through an organized scheme to the economicallychallenged societies.

GANTTCHART REPRESENTING THE WORK PLAN

Thefollowing is a Gantt chart representing the work plan of the project.

Week

Activity

Activity

milestone

13th April 2015

20th April 2015

27th April 2015

4th may 2015

11th may 2015

18th may 2015

25th may 2015

1ST June 2015

8TH June 2015

15th June 2015

22nd June 2015

29th June 2015

6th July 2015

13th July 2015

20th July 2105

27th July 2015

1

Proposal

x

2

Requirement specification

3

Design review

4

Code/unit testing

5

Design

6

Code

7

Test

8

Integrate UI module

9

Test UI

10

Integrate module

11

System test

Costsassociated with the project

Thesewill include the general project utilities ranging from personnelinput cost to the materials involved in the project.

Variouspersonnel involved in the project include testers, Sponsor, BusinessAnalysts, Technical experts, System designers, marketing experts,Legal experts, medical experts, Usability experts and representativesof external associations.

Othercosts involved are the hardware resources and the softwaredevelopment resources utilized in putting together a user-friendlyworking project. Hardware resources range from the computers used indeveloping programs to run the project system to the paperworkmaterials used in the project.

Thesoftware resources involve the applications used to develop thealgorithms that are used in the project to run the wheelchair, aswell as the integration of the hardware and software into a completeoperating system.

Benefitsof the automated wheelchair

Theautomated wheelchair will come in handy for the tetraplegic andparaplegic patients in terms of their locomotion around theirenvironment and the people they interact with. It will be a moment ofrest for the people who drive these patients around in hospitals andat their homes too.

Secondlysince the wheelchair comes with easy instructions on how to operateit will be easy for the people of all ages to work without the needfor further training(Lind, D. 2005. 121).It also comes with language translator software where the user canuse any language for voice commands to operate on the wheelchair.This will be an added advantage for business and social diversity.

Theautomated wheelchair will also come with an advantage for thehospitals personnel who hire people to drive patients to hospitals.It will allow these personnel to be assigned to other more productivefields such as research fields for improved health care.

Projectcost plan

Theautomated wheelchairs are to be released in different schemesfollowing the applications considerations. The customers will have tomake applications for the wheelchairs and after review and packagesthey can receive them at their doorstep following their orders.Organization or governments’ bulk orders can be handled differentlythough. The three payment packages are as follows.

Voucher scheme

Amount in ($)

Distribution mode

Standard option

600

Distributed for clinical purposes

Partnership option

500 (per partner)

Payment allowed for max two partners

Independent option

1000

Single payment without deposit

Conclusion

Inconclusion, this project is based on improving both the physicallychallenged people and the public in general at great lengths. Withthe structural changes in favor for the user of wheelchairs invarious environments today less do we need physical help to drivearound on a wheelchair. This project ensures the challenged peoplefeel more confident and independent when in control of their motionallowed the environment.

Thisproject guarantees not only independence of motion but also increasedproductivity in our daily activities. It helps the physicallychallenged people efficiently navigate in their places of work. Onthe other hand, it ensures that no one is physically involved indriving them around hence these people can be involved in otherincome generating activities(Hines, J. 1987. 131).This project serves as a double edged sword to both the society andthe economy environment hence worth embracing.

References

Burns,T. E., &amp Stalker, G. M. (1961). The management ofinnovation.Universityof Illinois at Urbana-Champaign`s Academy for EntrepreneurialLeadership Historical Research Reference in Entrepreneurship.

Crecente,R., Alvarez, C., &amp Fra, U. (2002). Economic, social andenvironmental impact of land consolidation in Galicia.&nbspLanduse policy,&nbsp19(2),135-147.

Draulans,J., &amp Volberda, H. W. (2003). Building alliance capability::Management techniques for superior alliance performance.&nbspLongRange Planning,&nbsp36(2),151-166

Hines,J. M., Hungerford, H. R., &amp Tomera, A. N. (1987). Analysis andsynthesis of research on responsible environmental behavior: Ameta-analysis.TheJournal of environmental education,&nbsp18(2),1-8.

Lind,D. A., Marchal, W. G., &amp Wathen, S. A. (2005). Statisticaltechniques in business &amp economics.

O`Brien,K. L., &amp Leichenko, R. M. (2000). Double exposure: assessing theimpacts of climate change within the context of economicglobalization.&nbspGlobalenvironmental change,&nbsp10(3),221-232.

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