BEHAVIORAL RISK ANALYSIS 4
One of the behavioral risks from the Healthy population 2010objectives is tobacco use as a contributing factor to preventablediseases and a leading cause of deaths asserts Kovner and Knickman(2011). Direct cigarette smoking and exposure to secondary cigarettesmoke are common ways through which people consume tobacco. The CDC(2013) reports data on smoking as being responsible for 443,000premature deaths from lung cancer, respiratory ailments and heartdiseases. Interventions for tobacco use costs the government a healthbudget of more than 96billion per annum.
Tobacco use during pregnancy is a challenge for unborn childrenaccounting for 20% low birth weights 8% and 5% of preterm andprenatal births. It also leads to sudden death syndrome, middle earinfection, respiratory ailments and decreased lung functions. Forevery 3000 children and teenagers 30% become new smokers andultimately addicted. Percentage rates of high school smokers stand at22% (Novic et al,2008). Populations are at a risk of contracting oralcancer, lung cancer, gum disease and other ailments due to beingexposed to smokers. As a result, it is important to developpopulation-based prevention model for this risky health behavior.
Health care interventions will be in three levels upstream,midstream and downstream. The downstream intervention would targetindividuals who possess the risk behavior like smokers or thosesuffering from risk factors. Several actions can be undertaken suchas health education, counseling, self-help groups and programs,pharmacologic treatment and tailored communication.
Midstream interventions target population groups with an aim ofpreventing the behavior or changing behavioral risk factors.Implementation can happen through natural channels or organizationalchannels with interventions in schools, worksites, specifiedcommunity settings. Prevention, health promotion and health carescreening are some of the midstream interventions. Introducingsmoke-free zones to prevent secondary exposure for non-smokers toprotect and prevent affecting populations is another useful midstreamintervention.
According to Kovner and Knickman (2011), upstream interventions aimat environmental interventions at the national and state level withan aim of strengthening social norms. Actions for upstream includepolicy preventing tobacco advertisement, national public education,economic incentives for safe healthy behavior, prevention ofunhealthy products and media campaigns. Intervention for tobacco useincludes introducing state policies that end promotion of cigarettesthrough advertisement, as this significantly contributes to smokingincidents (York, 2012).
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. (2013). Tobaccoproduct use among middle and high school students–United States,2011 and 2012. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report,62(45), 893.
Kovner, A. & Knickman, J. (Eds.). (2011). Health care deliveryin the United States (10th Ed.),
New York, NY: Springer Publishing.
Novic, L., Morrow, C. & Mays, G. (2008). “Public HealthAdministration”.  Sudbury, MA:
Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
York, N. (2012). Tobacco Control, an Issue of Nursing Clinics,Oxford: Elsevier