Basic metaphysical problems

Basicmetaphysical problems

Nameof student

Nameof professor

Summaryof readingassignment

Theauthor’sconcernliesin variousmetaphysicalareasof contentionthat includethequestionof being,substance,essenceandexistence,appearanceandreality,unityanddiversity,changeandpermanence.Theissueof casualty,themind-body relationship,freedomanddeterminism anduniversals are alsocontentious.Hehardlygiveshis opinionregardingthesetopics,butheusestheexplanationsof scholars’from pre-Socratic eradown to themoderndayphilosophy.Accordingto him, themysterybehind theareasof discussioncan be subjectto dogmaticexplanation,andtheywould ratherhavea conceptual explication.In his viewabout theknowledgeusedby philosophersto discussthevexedissues,hebelievesthattheir comprehensionsometimesbecomedrainedby newdiscoveriesthat provepreviouspremisesas illusionary reasoning.Hefinallyagreesto thefactthatphilosophicalreasoningis dynamicandscholarstendto be skepticalof their predecessors.

Previousknowledgeon thetopics

Theauthor’spositionaddson to my comprehensionof varioustopics.Forexamplein whencommentingon theissueof being,I gatheredthatI wasawarethatthere are two typesof beings,thatis, thefiniteandtheinfinite.Itwasto my understandingthatfinitebeingshavelimitedaptness. Besides this,headdson to my knowledgeon thecharacteristicsthat definea being.I wasnot awarethattruth,goodnessandunityare theprimarycomponentsof “thatwhich exists.”Healsoenlightensme on thedifferentareasthat trigger reactionsfrom scholarsandhowtheir thinkingchangeswith time.

Comprehensionof thetopic

Itakethesamestandwith theviewsof theauthorwhobases his argumentabout theissueof substanceon Plato`s philosophy.I concurwith theassertionthatsubstancedeterminesthe“whatness” in an object.Theothercharacteristicsthan manifest in theobjectsare justaccidents.Forexample,complexion,heightandsizedonot changetheconstitutionof a humanbeing.Despite havingdifferentcharacteristicsin their physicalappearance,theyshareone aspectof humanness. Besides this,thequestionof permanenceandchangeis nowclearto me despite divergingexplanationsby differentphilosophers.Everything is in a constantflux andtheelementsthat composean objectchangefrom one stateto another.However,themajorcomponents,thatis, air,fireearthandwaterremainpermanentin everyobject.Theyare not alteredby thetransformation.

Iwas,however,unableto comprehendtheargumentpresentedby David Hume concerningtheexistenceof things.Accordingto him, both thematerialandspiritualbeingare justillusionsin themind.From his explanationof substance,itis difficultto understandhowitis an illusionto something visible.Theenvironmentis fullof thingsthat theeyescan see.Ifitis not existent, thenone cannot understandhowweforma similarperceptionof them. I disagreewith him on thematterandinclineto theargumentof Thomas Aquinas notionthatsubstanceis whatcomposesan object,anditis not illusionary.

Questionson theReading

Ireviewedthevariousphilosophicalthoughtsof differentscholars,andI cameup with three contemplativequestionswhoseanswerscan be foundby combiningideasof thedifferentscholars.Theyincludea)Ifrealityconsist whatwecan seeandunderstand,can wereallyknowwhatis not real?b)Whendiscussingreality,is itontological, logicalorempirical?c)Whyis theAfrican metaphysics differentfrom thewesternmetaphysics?