Assignment 1 Discussion Assignment Unit


Assignment1: Discussion Assignment



Baumrind(1966) described a set of parenting styles. Briefly describe theseparenting styles. On the basis of the different parenting styles,explain which one would be most effective in promoting success inlater life.

Baumrind’s(1966) permissive parenting style involves parents taking anon-punitive and affirmative approach towards a child’s actions,desires, and impulses usually by consulting with the child. Theauthoritarian parenting style involves parents assuming a higherauthority and seeking to shape a child’s behavior by setting strictstandards of behaviors and punitive measures to enforce compliance.The authoritative parenting style involves parents using anissue-oriented approach to shape a child’s behavior by employingdisciplined conformity and autonomous self-will. The authoritativeapproach is the most suitable as it employs logical reasoning whichcan help children later in life when there is no authority to guidethem (Santrock, 2012). This approach also enables children to developa habit of controlling their desires to conform to reason needed inlife.

Parentspurchase a number of items (until preschool) to help their childrenget a head start in education. Locate a few unique educationalproducts on the market and probe their claims about helping childrengrow cognitively. Explain how the products may fit into Piaget’sstages of child development.

ImaginariumWooden Block Set – 75 piece: Marketers claim this toy developsshape recognition in 2-4 year olds. This concurs with Piaget’spreoperational stage which says this age group learns symbolicthinking.

DoctorRole Play Costume Set: This toy for 3-6 olds allows them to mimicusing a doctor’s equipment without necessarily the use of suchequipment. Therefore, the toy coincides with Piaget’spreoperational theory where symbols are used to develop thinkingwithout logic.


Forhis dissertation, Kohlberg (1958) conducted a study examining themoral development of children and adolescents. Briefly describe thelevels and stages of moral development. Explain the major criticismsof Kohlberg`s moral stages, especially the work of Gilligan.

Kohlberg’smoral development theory identifies three levels further divided intosix developmental stages with each adequate than the predecessor inhandling moral dilemmas. Level 1 is called pre-conventional level. Itconsists of stage 1 the most basic and involves punishment avoidancewhile stage 2 involves getting what you want by trade. Level 2, alsocalled conventional involves performing the right roles. It consistof stage 3 which pertains to meeting other people’s expectationsand stage 4 which is based on fulfilling laws and duties. Level 3,also called post conventional involves shared standard and duties.Under this level is stage 5, which involves sense of relativity ofrules and democracy, and stage six which pertains to self selectionof universal principles (Santrock, 2012).

CarolGilligan criticizes this theory by saying that it is andocentricbecause Kohlberg initially relied on strictly male sample. She alsoclaims that the theory overemphasizes on moral justice thus failingto fully acknowledge other moral aspects of action (Santrock, 2012).

Genderstereotypes are prevalent throughout childhood, from toy cars toBarbie dolls. One influence on gender stereotypes is peerinteraction. Explain the development of peer relationships andexplain how peer interactions may influence gender stereotypes.

Childrenare born without gender identity. It is the adult peers that recruitthem into a certain gender identity. For instance, boys areintroduced to manly colors and toys while girls are introduced toBarbie dolls and stuffed animals to help them fit into female gender.Therefore, it is male peers and female peers who reinforce genderstereotypes in children as they interact with them. Boys are thustaught by their dads and other males to be male and act in a certainway. Girls on the other hand are taught by their mothers and otherfemales to act in a certain ‘female way’. This way genderstereotypes are reinforced continuously (Santrock, 2012)


Santrock,John (2012). Life-SpanDevelopment,14th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Learning