Annotated Bibliography Teenage Pregnancy

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY TEENAGE PREGNANCY 9

Arai, L. (2009).&nbspTeenagepregnancy: The making and unmaking of a problem.Bristol, UK: PolicyPress.

According to Arai, early pregnancy amid teens is a relevant socialissue as well as public health concern. The book informs that informer years, young mothers have been blamed for engaging in sexualactivity at young ages, which results in them becoming young mothers.As a result, teens that get children early face social exclusion astheir personal morality become questioned. Arai notes that theproblematisation of teen pregnancy does not good in reducing therising statistics. Instead, the book suggests the need for educationtargeting teens on how to avoid early pregnancies. Re-assessingadolescent pregnancy will be a major step towards ensuring that teensare informed on the consequences of early sexual activity.

The book is an informative source on researching public healthissues. It explains how teenage mothers face social exclusion becauseof the association of their pregnancy to lose morals. The sourcecontributes to the research on stigmatization arising from teenpregnancy. The author further recommends a change in the approach ofdealing with the issue, which will be useful when discussingstrategies to deal with adolescent pregnancy.

Baird, A. S &amp Porter, C. C. (2011). Teenage pregnancy: Strategiesfor prevention. Obstetrics, Gynecology &amp ReproductiveMedicine, 21(6), 151-157.

The journal notes that teenage pregnancy is highest in America whencompared to different developed nations. Likewise, adolescentabortion rates are also widespread amid teenagers in the US.According to Baird and Porter, other nations worldwide also deal withthe social issue. It is apparent that teen pregnancy is undesirableand young adults that become pregnant have to deal with the prejudiceand consequences. Society blames the adolescents, who in mostinstances, end up poor and become single mothers. It is also apparentthat factors like poverty and lack of education are majorcontributors for teens engaging in early sexual activity. Thus, theauthors note the significance of prevention strategies. These includeeducation and improved contraception services for teenagers.

The journal compares teenage pregnancies in different nations andarrives at conclusive results on the contributors, which makes it acredible source. It is important for the research on teenagepregnancy, by informing on effective prevention strategies.

Gillham, B. (1997). The facts about teenage pregnancies.London: Cassell.

The book tackles the major issues concerning the intricate andemotional subject on teenage pregnancy. The author uses research thathas already been performed by different authors to evaluate thecauses an aftermaths of adolescent pregnancies. Gillham compares theresearch and comes up with his own analysis on the changing trends.The book informs that teenage pregnancies have been increasing overthe years. However, the difference is that most teenage pregnanciescurrently result in abortion. According to Gillham, few individualsrealize the popularity of abortion, which is an indicator of theincrease in early pregnancies. In addition, teenage pregnanciesresults in economic strains, and the author conclude by analyzingstrategies for reducing adolescent pregnancies.

Gillham’s book takes a different approach on the subject. Insteadof focusing on just statistics, causes and aftermaths of teenagepregnancy, the author evaluates how the issue is related to abortion.The source contributes to the research on the increase in abortionrates because of increasing adolescent pregnancies, which makes it agood read for the paper.

Henshaw, S. K &amp Vort, J. V. (1989). Teenage abortion, birth andpregnancy statistics: An update. Family Planning Perspectives,21(2), 85-88.

The study is a presentation of country and state-level statistics offigures of adolescent pregnancies and aftermaths for the 80s. Theaftermaths relate to the number of teenagers that choose to keeptheir pregnancies and become mothers and those that abort. Importantis the fact that age influences the decision to keep or abort apregnancy. Younger teens will opt for abortion while older teens aged19 mostly prefer to keep their pregnancies. In addition, the authorsdiscuss the challenges that young mothers face during birth. Inextreme cases, teens have to undergo induced labor or abortions tosave their lives. The authors explain why introducing family planningto teens is important in safeguarding them from the challengesemergent after early pregnancy.

The journal contributes to the study of teenage pregnancy byproviding historical statistics on the issue. The authors incorporatedata from the 80s, which makes it possible to compare any changesthat may have occurred in teenage pregnancy statistics using currentdata.

Jones, D. J &amp Battle, S. F. (1990). Teenage pregnancy:Developing strategies for change in the twenty-first century.New York: Transaction Publishers.

Jones and Battle discuss how pregnancy as well as childbearing amidyoung adults in America has been and is progresses to be a developingsocial issue. This is because the number of teenage pregnancies hasbeen increasing over the years. More and more teens are becomingyoung mothers, despite increasing education on teenage pregnancy. Thebook informs that although the statistics of young pregnancy is anincreasing concern for teens of all races, income and societies, theaftermaths are more adverse amid minority groups. The sourceprogresses to inform on the current thinking that teen pregnancy iswidespread among minorities. However, the authors conclude that nogroup of teenagers is safe from becoming pregnant at young ages.Jones and Battle conclude by noting the effectiveness of earlyeducation on sexual activity as an approach to reduce teen pregnancy.

The book is a collection of essays and presents up to date thinkingon teenage pregnancy. Hence, it is important and a reliable sourcewhen researching the issue. The inclusion of statistics in thepresentation of thoughts results in a better understanding on thecurrent state of teen pregnancy.

Kotagal, U. R. (1993). Newborn consequences of teenage pregnancies.Pediatric Annals, 22(2), 127-132.

Kotagal notes that more than a million adolescent pregnancies happenin America on a yearly basis. The aftermaths of this pattern on theteenagers and newborns, in addition to society cannot be avoided. Theincreasing rates of young adults getting pregnant reflect societalchallenges encountered and signify a main healthcare disaster.Teenagers and their newborns depict populations that are at anenhanced peril to experience more psychosocial and medicalchallenges. The article notes that when formulating approaches totackle the needs of teen mothers, it is necessary to emphasize on theneed for family support as a variable impacting teenagers.

The article is an important source for the research on teenagepregnancy. It informs on the challenges teenage mothers face, and thelink between teen birth and high mortality. The authors also provideintervention approaches that will provide lasting solutions to teenpregnancy. The interventions will be incorporated on preventionstrategies, when writing the research on teenage pregnancy.

Langham, R. Y. (2015). What are the causes of teenage pregnancy?LiveStrong.com. Retrieved from:http://www.livestrong.com/article/146681-what-are-the-causes-of-teenage- pregnancy/

The article defines teenage pregnancy as an accidental pregnancy thathappens during teens. The most affected teenagers are aged from 15 to19 years. There are many causes for these early pregnancies. One ispeer pressure, which has an influence on what decisions teenagersmake, as a result causing them to engage in sex early. Since most areunaware that engaging in sexual activity may result in pregnancy,they end up pregnant due to the desire to fit in with peers and avoidmockery. Other causes are absentee parents, which means teenagersfail to get guidance and are hence incapable of making properdecisions concerning engaging in sexual activity at early ages.Movies, magazines and other media forms make pregnancy glamorous, andas a result, most teens that get pregnant may feel that it is not abig deal. Lack of knowhow on sex is a major cause for teenagepregnancy as teens get misguided information from their peers. Inaddition is teenage pregnancy that reduces the capability ofregulating impulses.

The article begins with an explanation of teenage pregnancy, inaddition to providing statistics, which helps in introducing thetopic. The author then progresses to inform on what causes teenagepregnancy in an explanatory manner, making the article a good source.

Luker, K. (1996).&nbspDubiousconceptions: The politics of teenage pregnancy.Cambridge, Mass: HarvardUniversity Press.

The book introduces readers to the adolescent mothers that facepublic disgrace because of early pregnancy. It comprises of teenagemothers from different parts of the country talking about theirexperiences, tribulations and their endeavor to become responsiblemothers. In addition, the book provides a human face to persons thatcomment on teenage mothers, and demonstrates how society has madeteenagers vulnerable to discrimination. It is apparent that mostpeople fuel anger towards adolescent mothers. Sensitive of theapprehension and confusion fueling the anger, as well as troubledfuture, which teenager mothers and their children are exposed to, theauthor makes it apparent what as a country, risk by failing torealize teenage pregnancy is a symptom and not an outcome of poverty.

The author presents a strong argument on how society has beenjudgmental towards teenage mothers. In addition, is a discussion onthe misconception that teenage pregnancy is widespread amid the pooror teenagers from a specific race.

Woodward, L. J., Horwood, J. L., &amp Fergusson, D. M. (2001).Teenage pregnancy: Cause for concern. New Zealand MedicalJournal, 114(1135), 301-303.

The authors examine the life span frequency of teenage pregnancy aswell as parenthood. Further are the psychosocial settings and presentsituations of young parents. The examination is conducted by use of asample size of above 500 young females. The research follows theteenagers’ life right from the instance they give birth to whenthey become twenty-one years. The outcomes of the analysis informthat teenage pregnancies mainly happen from age 17 to 21. Anotherimportant finding is that young females that get pregnant have commonbehaviors. These include poor academic attainment, behavior issues,taking sexual risks and family misfortunes. However, adolescentpregnancy is mainly a result of individual and social aspects. Thejournal as well evaluates how children of teenage parents face healthand developmental issues.

The journal is an informative source, which enhances understandingon what contributes to teenage pregnancy. The authors conduct a studyand provide conclusions, which make the research credible.

World Health Organization. (2015). Maternal, newborn, childand adolescent health: Adolescent pregnancy. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/topics/maternal/adolescent_pregnancy/en/

The WHO acknowledges that the statistics of teenage pregnancy dependon family background. For instance, adolescents from low or middleearning nations record higher birth rates in their teens compared tothose from high earning nations. The rate in low-income nations isfive times more. Most of these teenagers report that the pregnancieswere unintentional compelling them to consider abortion. The WHOprogresses to note that adolescents that get pregnant risk theirlives and those of their children. The health issues arise fromnegative aftermaths of becoming young mothers. Once pregnant, teensare prone to illnesses like anemia, STIs, mental conditions likedepression, HIV and postpartum hemorrhage among others.

The article is a credible source, because it summarizes the causesand rates of teenage pregnancy from different nations. It is WorldHealth Organization report, which makes the source credible andreliable. Further, it largely contributes to the research on teenagepregnancy by informing on the statistics, causes, dangers it posesfor adolescents and consequences.

References

Arai, L. (2009).&nbspTeenagepregnancy: The making and unmaking of a problem.Bristol, UK: PolicyPress.

Baird, A. S &amp Porter, C. C. (2011). Teenage pregnancy: Strategiesfor prevention. Obstetrics, Gynecology &amp ReproductiveMedicine, 21(6), 151-157.

Gillham, B. (1997). The facts about teenage pregnancies.London: Cassell.

Henshaw, S. K &amp Vort, J. V. (1989). Teenage abortion, birth andpregnancy statistics: An update. Family Planning Perspectives,21(2), 85-88.

Jones, D. J &amp Battle, S. F. (1990). Teenage pregnancy:Developing strategies for change in the twenty-first century.New York: Transaction Publishers.

Kotagal, U. R. (1993). Newborn consequences of teenage pregnancies.Pediatric Annals, 22(2), 127-132.

Langham, R. Y. (2015). What are the causes of teenage pregnancy?LiveStrong.com. Retrieved from:http://www.livestrong.com/article/146681-what-are-the-causes-of-teenage- pregnancy/

Luker, K. (1996).&nbspDubiousconceptions: The politics of teenage pregnancy.Cambridge, Mass: HarvardUniversity Press.

Woodward, L. J., Horwood, J. L., &amp Fergusson, D. M. (2001).Teenage pregnancy: Cause for concern. New Zealand MedicalJournal, 114(1135), 301-303.

World Health Organization. (2015). Maternal, newborn, childand adolescent health: Adolescent pregnancy. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/topics/maternal/adolescent_pregnancy/en/