Annotated Bibliography

15

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Summary/Abstract

The changes in the modern business environments have made change aconstant aspect of business organization. Emerging and rapidlychanging technology, changing needs and diversity of consumers andglobalization of the economies are some of the factors thatnecessitate change in organizations. To remain competitive andrelevant in the market, business organizations need to change withthe dynamic business environment. Additionally, other factors such aschange in government regulations make change a legal requirement. Itis also important to note that change and change management isimportant in both business and non business organizations. Changemanagement is critical in non profit organizations, governmentagencies and learning institutions. One of the most important aspectsof change management is resistance to change. Resistance to change isa natural reaction by individuals within an organization when changeis introduced. Change requires new way of thinking and doing things,which makes some people uncomfortable. While organizations arewilling to invest huge recourses to initiate change, majority ofchange initiatives results into failure. This has been hugelyattributed to resistance to change. Consequently, resistance tochange is viewed as a critical impediment to growth and developmentin an organization. There are several reasons why employees resistchange. Over the years, there are several strategies that have beenproven to have a positive impact on change management and overcomingresistance to change. Resistance to change and change management isone of the most studied topics in management. This paper provides anannotated bibliography on the various aspects of resistance tochange. It mainly contained peer reviewed articles from journalspublished in the recent past.

Barends, E., Janssen, B., Have, W. &amp Have, S. (2014). “Effectsof Change Interventions, What Kind of Evidence Do We Really Have?”Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 50(1) p 5-27.

Change and change management has gained popularity in organizationmanagement. This is because proper change management has a positiveimpact on the success of the organization. The article by Barends etal (2014) asks tries to answer some of the critical questions relatedto change management. The most fundamental questions revolve aroundwhether the perceptions and discussions relating to change and changemanagement in organization are supported by solid and convergentevidence. The article gives a systematic review of studies that havebeen conducted in the last three decade on organizational changemanagement. There is no doubt that this is a widely studies topic.Thus, over five hundred studies were reviewed based on the reviewcriteria. Thus, this article provides an important insight on variesaspects of organizational change management.

Boohene, R. &amp Williams, A. (2012). “Resistance toOrganizational Change: A Case Study of Oti Yeboah Complex Limited”.International Business and Management, 4(1), p 135-145.

Due to the perception that change is critical in organizationalsuccess, any form of resistance to change is views as a barrier to asuccessful growth and development. There is no doubt that resistanceto change impacts negatively on organizational performance.Organizations make huge investments in order to strengthen theirmarket presence and compete favorably in the dynamic businessenvironment. The journal article examines the factors that have animpact on resistance to change in Oti Yoboah Complex Limited. Factorssuch as the role of employees in decision making processes, lack oftrust in management, poor communication and lack of motivation werefound to influence employee resistance to change. The study suggestsseveral ways through which organizations can manage these factors andavoid resistance to change. Although the study was confined in anorganization in Ghana, these factors exist in other organizations.

Bovey, W. H. &amp Hede, A. (2001a). “Resistance to organizationalchange: the role of defense mechanisms”. Journal of managerialpsychology 16(7), p 534-548.

Resistance to change in organizations is one of the most studiestopics in the modern business management. However, according to Bovey&amp Hede (2001), majority of literatures in management focuses onorganizational based factors that impact positively or negativelyemployee’s attitudes towards change. They identify some adaptiveand maladaptive defense mechanisms which influences employee’sattitude towards change initiatives and thus resistance to change.Bovey &amp Hede (2001) study is critical because it provides primarydata from a survey conducted in nine organizations. The surveyinvolved 615 employees. The study indicates that both maladaptive andadaptive defense mechanisms are correlated with resistance to changein individuals.

Bovey, W. H. &amp Hede, A. (2001b). “Resistance to organizationalchange: The role of cognitive and affective processes”. Leadership&amp organization development Journal, 22(8), p 372-382.

The journal article by Bovey &amp Hede (2001) also looks at someindividual based factors that are associated with resistance tochange. The article examines irrational ideas and emotions amongindividual employees and how they influence resistance toorganizational change. The study used the same subject of 615employees and nine organizations to investigate the role of cognitiveand affective processes in resistance to organizational change. Thestudy identified a positive correlation between the factors andemployee resistance to change. The article concludes with evidencebased intervention strategies that can guide an organization indealing with some of these individual based factors in changemanagement.

Hashim, M. (2014). “Organizational change: Case study of GM,(General Motors)”. Journal of Business administration andmanagement science research, 3(1), p 1-5.

The modern business environment is characterized by changes intechnologies and market trends which has created the need foe newstrategies. The success of multinational organization such as GeneralMotors is dependent on it ability to adapt to changing technologies,mode of operations and the needs of the market. As a result, changeis constant and a critical process in these organizations. In thearticle, Hashim (2014) elaborates and analysis the concept of changein an organization. He loots at, among other aspects of change, howorganizational change works, factors that affect organizationalchange, resistance to change, forces involved in organizationalchange and different approaches to change. The article uses theGeneral Motors case study to analyze organizational change and thestrategies involved.

Hendrickson, S. &amp Gray, E. J. (2012). “Legitimizing resistanceto organizational change: A social work social juscitce perspective”.International journal of humanities and social science, 2(5) p50-60.

As a result of globalization and social and political shifts,organization change has become inevitable. However, majority oforganizational change attempts results into failure. This has greatlybeen attributed to employee resistance. Hendrickson &amp Gray(2012) looks at how employee resistance is a barrier to organizationchange. The article is based on the social work social justiceperceptive. From this perspective, employees are likely to supportchanges that seem to be necessary or fight for or against status quo.Reconciling different perceptions of employees on the proposedchanges is necessary in securing their support. Hendrickson &ampGray (2012) analyses change management in both business and socialwork organizations and the role of social justice in understandingthe legitimate response to change by employees.

Ijaz, S. &amp Vitalis, A. (2011). “Resistance to organizationalchange: Putting the jigsaw together”, International Review ofBusiness Research Papers, 7(3), p 112-121.

According to Ijaz &amp Vitalis (2011), different organization aroundthe world has spent billions of dollars to implement change. This isdue to the challenges facing the increasingly dynamic world in whichthese organizations operate. An important aspect of organizationchange that has been extensively covered in scholarly research andliterature has been resistance to change. However, Ijaz &amp Vitalis(2011) notes that majority of these literatures associate resistanceto change with deviant behaviors among employees or people involved.In general, resistance to change is seen as an infuriatingobstruction that any organization must overcome in order to succeed.Although this could be the case, recent finding indicate that dissentin implementation of organizational change may have positive impacts.Ijaz &amp Vitalis (2011) seeks to further the debate on thedifferent perception of resistance to change. The article isinterested in information gaps in the resistance to change debate.

Lunenburg, F. C. (2010). “Forces for and resistance to organizationchange”. National forum of educational administration andsupervision journal, 27(4).

Lunenburg (2010) defines organizational change as “the movement ofan organization away from its present state and towards some desiredfuture state to increase its effectiveness”. Increasingeffectiveness in a challenging operating environment is the desire ofevery organization. The article looks at change management andresistance to change in an educational institution. Lunenburg looksat factors for and against change in an organization. The authorappreciates the fact that while there are essential internal andexternal factors such as government regulation, technology oradministrative factors that necessitates change, the organizationshould consider the factors against change, key among them resistanceto change. The article also proposes some important strategies thatcan be used to deal with resistance to change.

McKay, K., Kuntz, J. &amp Naswall, K. (2013). “The effect ofaffective commitment, communication and participation on reistance tochange: The role of change readiness”. New Zealand journal ofpsychology, 42(1), p 55-67.

According to McKay et al 2013, due to the incidences offailure that have been reported in organizational change initiatives,there are several studies that have been conducted to identifycontextual and organizational factors that are an impediment toorganizational transformation. The journal article by McKay andothers seeks to identify whether effective communication, affectivecommitment and the employees opportunity have an impact on changeinitiative success or failure. Additionally, the readiness to change,although it has not been extensively been investigated, is animportant precursor to resistance to change and failure inorganizational transformation. The article by McKay et al aims atexploring this gap. The article is based on a survey conducted inNew Zealand and Australia. The result of the survey indicates thatchange readiness, effective communication and affective commitmenthave a huge influence on employees’ attitude towards change.

Naghibi, M. &amp Baban, H. (2011). “Strategic change management,the challenges faced by organization”, 2011 internationalconference on economic and finance research, IPEDR vol 4.Singapore, IACSIT Press.

The conference article by Naghibi &amp Baban (2011) looks atchallenges facing strategic change in organizations. Strategic changerefers to “change in the content of a firm’s strategy as definedby its scope, resource deployments, competitive advantage andsynergy”. The article looks at varies aspects of change as astrategy for future success. For example, a strategic change isinfluenced by organizational culture and employees’ behaviors. Ifthe is resistance to change among the employees, strategic changewill fail. Naghibi &amp Baban 2011 advices managers thatorganizational change should start from the individual level upwards.Although the article does not go deep into resistance toorganizational change, it provides an overview of what need to bedone before change is implemented in order to avoid challenges suchas resistance to change. For example, it outlines the factors to beconsidered before making a decision to implement change, whichincludes the right time to implement the change, the scope andcapability and capacity of the organization.

Pettigrew, A.,Woodman, R. &amp Cameron, K. (2001). “StudyingOrganizational Change and Development: Challenges for FutureResearch”. Academy of management journal, 44(4) p 697-713.

There are numerous studies that have been conducted in management ofchange in organization. There is no doubt that there is limiteddeveloped and future success if the organization does not have thecapacity and capability of adapting to emerging trends in thebusiness environment. The journal article by Pettigrew et al (2001)is a literature review of several studies that have been carried outin the past on organizational change management. The main rationalein the article is that while looking at several studies inorganizational change, it is essential to look and the multiplecontexts and levels of analysis in which these studies are conducted.Additionally, the time factor, history, and internal factors in theorganization, such as performance, are essential aspects of the studythat need to ne examined. Although this article does not directlyaddress resistance to change, it addresses critical issues based onextensive studies which are essential in understanding changemanagement.

Pieterse, J., Caniels, M. &amp Homan, T. (2012). “Professionaldiscourse and resistance to change”. Journal of organizationalchange management, 25(6) p 798-818.

The main aim of change in organization is to remain relevant andcompetitive in the business environment. However, resistance tochange remains one of the most important challenges in theimplementation of change. The article by Pieterse et al (2012)examines resistance to organizational change and the influence ofprofessional discourse and working together if different professionalgroups influence on resistance to change. The main study in thearticle involves an analysis of professional discourse in theimplementation of an information and communication technology systemin an airline. The finding and conclusion of the study provides animportant insight on how interaction between professionals can resultinto resistance to change.

Pryor, M., Taneja, S., Humphreys, J., Anderson, D. &amp Singleton,L. (2008). “Challenges facing change management theories andresearch”, Delhi Business Review, 9(1)

According to Pryor et al (2008), in the modern business environment,change has is constant. Leaders in business and non businessorganizations anticipate change regularly. However, there are manychallenges facing change management of change in organizations,mainly resistance to change. There are several change managementmodels that an organization can adopt. According to Pryor et al(2008), the challenges are not as a result of worth or relevance ofthe models, but the “speed and complexity of change required”.This makes the difference between winners and losers. While losersare trying to master and control change, winners are able to adaptand act promptly despite the complexity. The journal article by Pryoret al (2008) looks at several models and theories that can be used inthe management of change in the modern business environment. It alsolooks at how the models are relevant to the challenges facingorganization in the modern globalised economies. Pryor et al (2008)also provides a critical review and comparison of the differentmodels and theories.

Rafferty, A., Jimmieson, N. &amp Armenakis, A. (2013). “ChangeReadiness. A Multilevel Review”, Journal of Management,39(1), p 110-135.

Change is inevitable in the modern business management trends.However, when are an organization and all stakeholders ready forchange? The article by Rafferty et al (2013) evaluates literature inorganizational changes with an aim of identifying information andresearch gaps in this field. The article concludes that literature onthe subject have identified the important role of readiness to changein organizations. However, there is literal recognition of theimportant role of affective element and emotions in the developmentof the right attitude towards change. Lack of multilevel approachtowards readiness to change has also been identified as an importantlimitation. The article also emphasizes the importance of individualand collective readiness to change. This aspect of change managementhas an important impact on resistance to change and the effectivemanagement of change.

Wittig, C. (2012). “Employees’ reactions to organizationalchange”. OD Practitioner, 44(2), p 23-29.

Wittig (2012) argues that majority of change initiatives in modernorganization results into failure. Although there are several factorsthat have been attributed to this failure, resistance to change byemployees is one of the most important factors. There is no thatemployee play a critical role in the success or failure of changeinitiatives. According to Wittig (2012), how employees react toorganization change has an influence on their dissent or support inthe change process. Wittig (2012) looks at the factors that influenceemployees’ reaction to change, which includes “emotionalintelligence, irrational thoughts, defense mechanisms and employeeattitudes”. It also looks at the critical role of communication inimplementing organizational change. Wittig (2012) also gives acritical analysis of the employees’ reaction to change process.

Yilmaz, D. &amp Kilicoglu, G. (2013). “Resistance to change andways of reducing resistance in educational organization”. EuropeanJournal of research on education 1(1), 14-21.

Educational organizations are some of the organizations in whichchange plays a critical role in the modern society. Theeffectiveness, sustainability and stability of schools today isinfluenced by how effectively they are able to adapt totechnological, social, economic and political changes. Yilmaz &ampKilicoglu (2013) appreciated the fact that education institutions arefaced with immense pressure to implement change and at the same timedeal with internal resistance. Although the article focuses on theeducation sector, it provides essential information on reasons thatnecessitates change in organization. It also gives a detainedoverview of organizational and individual reasons for resistance tochange. An important section of the article is the methods that anorganization can adopt to overcome resistance to change.

References

Barends, E., Janssen, B., Have, W. &amp Have, S. (2014). “Effectsof Change Interventions, What Kind of Evidence Do We Really Have?”Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 50(1) p 5-27.

Boohene, R. &amp Williams, A. (2012). “Resistance toOrganizational Change: A Case Study of Oti Yeboah Complex Limited”.International Business and Management, 4(1), p 135-145.

Bovey, W. H. &amp Hede, A. (2001a). “Resistance to organizationalchange: the role of defense mechanisms”. Journal of managerialpsychology 16(7), p 534-548.

Bovey, W. H. &amp Hede, A. (2001b). “Resistance to organizationalchange: The role of cognitive and affective processes”. Leadership&amp organization development Journal, 22(8), p 372-382.

Hashim, M. (2014). “Organizational change: Case study of GM,(General Motors)”. Journal of Business administration andmanagement science research, 3(1), p 1-5.

Hendrickson, S. &amp Gray, E. J. (2012). “Legitimizing resistanceto organizational change: A social work social juscitce perspective”.International journal of humanities and social science, 2(5) p50-60.

Ijaz, S. &amp Vitalis, A. (2011). “Resistance to organizationalchange: Putting the jigsaw together”, International Review ofBusiness Research Papers, 7(3), p 112-121.

Lunenburg, F. C. (2010). “Forces for and resistance to organizationchange”. National forum of educational administration andsupervision journal, 27(4).

McKay, K., Kuntz, J. &amp Naswall, K. (2013). “The effect ofaffective commitment, communication and participation on reistance tochange: The role of change readiness”. New Zealand journal ofpsychology, 42(1), p 55-67.

Naghibi, M. &amp Baban, H. (2011). “Strategic change management,the challenges faced by organization”, 2011 internationalconference on economic and finance research, IPEDR vol 4.Singapore, IACSIT Press.

Pettigrew, A.,Woodman, R. &amp Cameron, K. (2001). “StudyingOrganizational Change and Development: Challenges for FutureResearch”. Academy of management journal, 44(4) p 697-713.

Pieterse, J., Caniels, M. &amp Homan, T. (2012). “Professionaldiscourse and resistance to change”. Journal of organizationalchange management, 25(6) p 798-818.

Pryor, M., Taneja, S., Humphreys, J., Anderson, D. &amp Singleton,L. (2008). “Challenges facing change management theories andresearch”, Delhi Business Review, 9(1)

Rafferty, A., Jimmieson, N. &amp Armenakis, A. (2013). “ChangeReadiness. A Multilevel Review”, Journal of Management,39(1), p 110-135.

Wittig, C. (2012). “Employees’ reactions to organizationalchange”. OD Practitioner, 44(2), p 23-29.

Yilmaz, D. &amp Kilicoglu, G. (2013). “Resistance to change andways of reducing resistance in educational organization”. EuropeanJournal of research on education 1(1), 14-21.