Annotated Bibliography

AnnotatedBibliography

AnnotatedBibliography

Adulthood

PaysnickA. &amp Burt K. (2012). Resilience in Transition to Adulthood.Journalof Development and Psychopathy,24: 493-505.

Thetransition to adulthood is characterized by several factors in lifesuch as effective parenting, intellectual skills, and charactertraits of low neuroticism or high emotional stability, and access toadequate financial resources. This research-based journal aims toexplain the paths taken by most vulnerable teenagers as they moveinto maturity phase. The article assesses the hypothesis of emergingadulthood by reviewing different studies conducted on the subject. Itprovides wide-ranging information on several studies conducted onresilience and transition into adulthood, which provides a broaderscope into the issue (Josefsson, et al., 2013). It heavily referencesprevious studies and opinions by other scholars, which makes itcredible.

Josefsson,K. et al. (2013). Maturity and Change in Personality: DevelopmentalTrends of Temperament and Character in Adulthood. Journalof Development and Psychopathy,25:713-727.

Changeinto adulthood is a major topic that helps in understanding humanmental changes. An individual’s personality alters as they approachmaturity with major transformations in friendliness, emotionalstability, social dominance, and conscientiousness (Paysnick A. &ampBurt K. 2012). The journal investigates the psychobiological theoryof personality by studying the developmental trends of character inFinnish men of women aged between 25 and 45. It is useful whenlearning maturity issues because it gives a comprehensive explanationof the hypothesis, which formulates a dependable foundation for thedecisive observations at the conclusion. Moreover, it contains awell-articulated discussion of the statistical data attained from thestudy group. The statistics are reliable since the results of thestudy concur with previous research.

Olderadults

Jungers,C. M. (2010). Leaving Home: An Examination of Late-Life Relocationamong Older Adults. Journalof Counselling and Development,88(4), 416-423.

Alarge percentage of older adults above 85 years relocate tohealthcare settings such as living facilities and nursing homes.Nevertheless, such rearrangement is one of the most regular causes ofstress due to loss of social support and fear of the unfamiliarcircumstances. They encounter particular risks that make therelocation to long-term health care facilities especially difficult.With the interviews carried out with 14 participants, the studyinvestigates if developmental experiences have been understudied.Thus, it forms significant contributions to an area that does nothave extensive previous research. In addition, the researcher gives asystematic guide to the investigation by explaining every action fromthe initial stages up to the conclusion.

Souza-Talarico,J. N. et al. (2014). Cross-country difference in basal andstress-induced cortisol secretion in older adults. PLOSONE,9(8), 1-9.

Thecultural and economic factors in a country contribute to basal andreactive cortisol levels particularly in healthy older adults.Consequently, the country situation influences the HypothalamicPituitary Adrenal Axis performance resulting in different patterns ofstandard and stress-stimulated cortisol secretion in older people.The results demonstrate that country conditions control the secretionof cortisol under basal and pressure reactive situations in olderadults using an investigation on 260 participants from Canada andBrazil. There is no previous research on the issues investigated inthis article. Hence, examining two culturally and economicallydiverse countries shows a reasonable representation of differentpeople worldwide. Nonetheless, the conclusion is not far-reachingbecause it discusses the issues that the researchers failed toconsider during the investigation, which cast uncertainties regardingthe reliability of the study.

Summary

Agingis characterized by different factors, which affects the person’spsychological well-being and susceptibility to various issues inlife. As an individual ages, their personality and behavior traitschange due to different situations. Every developmental phase ischaracterized by diverse actions and attitudes that a person findsacceptable. As such, the older adults are friendlier, exercise socialauthority, and portray self-awareness. Most of these attributesoriginate from cultural, ecological, and socio-economic influences.Consequently, it is normal to find the elderly relocating to nursingand healthcare facilities (Jungers, 2010).

Thesimilarities found in the types of research and what was beingstudied

Thestudies in all the articles were consistent because they based theinvestigations on the age of the participants rather than gender.They also used earlier studies as their core references to provetheir hypothesis or answer the research question. In addition, theyemphasized on the issues that are particular old people.

Developmentaltheories applicable to the research

Theconcept of emerging adulthood and psychobiological theory wereapplied in the study. The theory of emerging adulthood provides ananalysis that illustrates the process of an individual transitioninginto adulthood occurring in several stages. It describes thechallenges that many young adults face because they cannot becategorized as teenagers, and yet, reached the full adult standing.The psychobiological theory clarifies that personality comprises oftemperament and character (Josefsson, et al., 2013). The notiondefines adulthood as character development usual for healthy adults,which is depicted by high self-motivation and complaisance (Hopwoodet al., 2011).

Thelife-span perspective provides a way of better understanding theresearch reviewed

Overtime, an individual’s life circumstances such as culture andeconomic factors influence the personality and behavior they willdevelop as they age (Souza-Talarico et al., 2014). The idea of lifespan elucidates different development periods by focusing on stagesof childhood, teenage years, adulthood, and old age. The studiescarry out investigations consistent with the life-span perspective toprovide vital information that assist in understanding refinement,behavioral alterations, and social experiences in adulthood phase andold age.

References

Hopwood,C. J. et al. (2011). Genetic and environmental influences onpersonality trait stability and growth during the transition toadulthood: A three-wave longitudinal study. Journalof Personality and Study Psychology,100: 545-556.

Josefsson,K. et al. (2013). Maturity and Change in Personality: DevelopmentalTrends of Temperament and Character in Adulthood. Journalof Development and Psychopathy,25:713-727.

Jungers,C. M. (2010). Leaving Home: An Examination of Late-Life Relocationamong Older Adults. Journalof Counselling and Development,88(4), 416-423.

PaysnickA. &amp Burt K. (2012). Resilience in Transition to Adulthood.Journalof Development and Psychopathy,24: 493-505.

Souza-Talarico,J. N. et al. (2014). Cross-country difference in basal andstress-induced cortisol secretion in older adults. PLOSONE,9(8), 1-9.

Syed,M. &amp Seiffge-Krenke, I. (2013). Personality development fromadolescence to emerging adulthood: Linking trajectories of egodevelopment to the family context and identity formation. Journalof Personality and Social Psychology,104: 371-384.