A QUESTION OF EFFICACY

A QUESTION OF EFFICACY – ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHIES 30

AQUESTION OF EFFICACY

AnnotatedBibliographies

PatriciaGrynspan

LaurentianUniversity

Schoolof Social Work

Schonert-Reichl,K., Oberle, E., Thomson, K., Lawlor, M.S., Abbott, D. &amp Diamond,A. (2015). Enhancing Cognitive and Social–Emotional Developmentthrough a Simple-to-AdministerMindfulness-Based School Programfor Elementary School Children: A RandomizedControlled Trial. DevPsychol. 2015 January 51(1): 52–66.

Theauthors of this article are highly qualified experts in the field ofchildhood education. KimberlySchonert-Reichl, is a professor at theUniversity of British Columbia, serving in the department ofeducational and counseling psychology, and special education andhuman early learning partnership (p.1). EvaOberle is also a professor at theUniversity of British Columbia in the Department of Education andalso a professor at the University of Illinois at Chicago in the samedepartment (p.1). Kimberly Thomsonspecializes in childhood learning Partnership, University of BritishColumbia (p.1). Molly Stewart Lawlorworks at the Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology andSpecial Education at the University of British Columbia (p.1). DavidAbbott is a professor at the Departmentof Psychiatry at the University of British Columbia (p.1). AdeleDiamond specializes in psychiatry andworks at the University of British Columbia in the Department ofPsychiatry (p.1).

Thearticle offers a clear abstract that describes the purpose of theresearch and the subject under study. The abstract introduces thethesis of the research, which seeks to explore the relationshipbetween the implementation of a mindfulness program and theeducational outcomes of the children participating in such a program(p.2). The study begins with a brief literature review that discussesthe relevant models of understanding social and emotional learning(SEL), Executive Functioning (EF) measures as well as mindfulness inchildhood education. (p.2). The authors suggest there is littleresearch examining the effects of mindfulness training on improvedstress management, well-being, learning and voluntary behaviorintended to benefit others with an average student populationattending elementary schools (p.3).

Allthe components of a research methodology are present in the paper,with a clear description of the sampling method, research proceduresand outcomes (p.2). The research uses randomized controlled study tocompare the outcomes of a sample group receiving the social emotionallearning (SEL) with a mindfulness component and a control group thatreceives a regular program teaching social responsibility (p.2). Thearticle describes the implementation measures adopted and the methodsof evaluating the impact of the teaching content to the children(p.2). The study describes the outcome measures by differentiating EFmeasures and the principles applied in the research (p.2). Thediscussion part of the study effectively describes the positiveoutcomes achieved through the implementation of the SEL withmindfulness program.

Inthe article, the authors study factors that serve to enhancecognitive control, promote the well being of young learners, reducestress, promote pro-sociality and produce positive results in school(p.3). The authors explore the mindfulness factors of the educationalprogram, caring for others, and SEL (p.3). The study examines thesefeatures on a sample of 99 students drawn from fourth and fifthgrades (p.3). The students sampled were randomly assigned to the SELwith a mindfulness program or a regular program that teaches socialresponsibility (p.3).

Fromthe study, it was revealed that children who engaged in the SELprogram with mindfulness of the hypothesized factors reporteddifferent results, from those who did not. According to the findings,these children improved in cognitive ability, control, had greaterempathy, were more prosocial, had an increased peer acceptance andwere more highly peer-rated (p.17). The research article exploresthe concepts of social and emotional learning, intervention,prosociality and the well being of children. Through the in-depthstudy of mindfulness program of the SEL, the article offers asignificant contribution to the current evidence that suggestsmindfulness enhances SEL programs for children and youth.

Thearticle has many limitations first, despite the fact that conditionswere randomized at the classroom level they applied an individualchild level analysis, which limited the researchers’ ability todraw conclusions about a causal connection(p.19). Second, the small number of classrooms did not allow forstatistical significance (p.19). Third, information regardingtreatment conditions, which could bias the teacher and peerassessors, was not concealed therefore the assessments may be biasedby knowledge of the experimental conditions (pp.19-20). Finally, theauthors have written this paper for a professional audienceconsequently it may prove a complex read for anyone who is notacquitted with the language, methods of research or subject matter. However, the article is an excellent source of information forresearch.

Miller,S., Herman-Stahl, M., Fishbein, D., Lavery, B., Johnson, M., &ampMarkovit, L. (2012). The use of formative research to develop ayoga curriculum for high-risk youth: implementation considerations.Advances in School Mental HealthPromotion, 2014 Vol. 7, No. 3, 171–183

Ateam of research experts together with a clinical social worker whois also a registered yoga instructor authored this article. ShariMiller is an associate professor at the Universityof Maryland, where she is the BSW and PhDProgram Director for the School of Social Work (p.171). Mindy Herman-Stahl PhD is asenior researcher at RTI International.(Bistreich-Wolfe,L. &amp Spangenberg, K., 2007). DianaH. Fishbein PhD is a Professor and Director of the Center forTranslational Research on Adversity, Neurodevelopment, and Substanceabuse within the Department of Psychiatry, at the University OfMaryland School Of Medicine (p.171). Bud Lavery is the Presidentand CEO at Prevent Child Abuse North Carolina. (p. 171).Michelle Johnson is a clinical social worker, and a registered yogainstructor, who applies a holistic approach to psychotherapy (p.171). Lara Markovits is currently employed as a Research Analyst atRTI International (p. 171). These authors present appropriatediversity in their fields and the topic of the study.

Thearticle is a study aimed at clarifying the application of formativeresearch into the adoption, development and the pretesting of amindfulness yoga curriculum to a group of high-risk students inattendance at a non-traditional school (p.171). The article containsthe main features of a research study that presents the problem,methods of research and conclusion. The authors present theintroduction of the study by describing the relevant elements of theresearch. Describing the current body of evidence for mindfulness andexploring the use of formative research for the study.

Themethod section of the article contains a thorough explanation of themethodology used for research in the study. The formative part ofthis research involved the collection of information from the targetpopulation and the practitioners in the community. Three componentsare described the focus group consisting of professionals, the twofocus groups of students for pretesting, and the development of theresearch (p.174). The article provides the methodology of researchfor each of these groups and the results for each of the components.The article concludes the study by providing a comprehensivediscussion about the research study and findings.

Thearticle contributes greatly to the literature of the research area,in regard to the development of a school-based mindfulness programfor students. The article provides an informative review of therelevant research by including a literature review on the topic.Through the introduction, the authors provide a discussion ofsecondary data relating to the topic and the principles under study.The article provides important information to any research on theapplication of mindfulness when applied through the practice of yoga.The article further provides the positive impact principles ofmindfulness provide adolescents. As indicated by one of theparticipants in the second focus group, after the 20 sessions “Whenwe come in we are mad. When we leave we are smiling” (p.178).

Thestudy provides a significant highlight of the issues that relate tothe successful implementation of a mindfulness-based program throughthe use of yoga. Furthermore, the article offers rich informationregarding the factors that lead to the programs success. The articlediscusses the concept of mindfulness and the reasons for its positiveimpact on adolescents. By discussing the current body of evidence formindfulness-based practices, the article validates the use of such aprogram for youth. Supported by the study findings, the articlepresents a rich source of content to contribute to research in thefield.

Thelimitations of the study include the lack of quantitative data tofurther enrich the qualitative data collected from the studyparticipants. The research does not provide a clear method of thesample size and the findings from each research group. In addition,the research does not cover all the factors that affect the outcomeof mindfulness as applied in the education of the students. Moreover, the study participants were graduating seniors from aspecialized school and well acquainted with one another (p.181). Thesame program may not demonstrate as effective in a larger schoolsetting (p.181). However, the article presents highly relevantcontent to support the current body of research on the topic, in anarea not very well documented.

Saltzman,A. &amp Golden, P. (2008). MindfulnessBasedStress Reduction for School-Age Children.In Laurie A. Greco &amp Steven C. Hayes (Eds.).Acceptance and Mindfulness Treatmentsfor Children &amp Adolescents. Oakland: New Harbinger PublicationsInc. p. 139-161

Throughtheir expertise on the mindfulness-based stress reduction process,the authors of this chapter provide quality research on theapplication of the MBSR program to reduce stress in children andparents. Amy Saltzman is the managing director of a psychologyconsulting institution, the Still Quiet Place in California (p. 139). She is a holistic physician, mindfulness coach and scientist who isrecognized as a pioneer in holistic medicine and mindfulness foryouth (p. 139). Dr. Saltzman’s interest in mindfulness basedintervention for children began when her son asked if he couldmeditate with her infant daughter (p.140). This eventually led to Dr.Saltzman sharing mediation which her children and eventually bringingan informal practice of mindfulness to their school (p.140). PhilippeGoldin directs the Clinically Applied Affective Neurosciencelaboratory at Stanford University and is now a tenured associateprofessor (Stanford University, 2015). He studied Buddhist philosophyand analytic debate at Namgyal Monastery in India (StanfordUniversity, 2015). He holds a PhD from Rutgers University where hestudied clinical psychology and neuroscience (Stanford University,2015). Dr. Goldin’s interest in bringing mindfulness-basedintervention to children began when several members of the adultpopulation he was working with indicated their anxiety began inchildhood (p.140).

Thechapter begins by indicating numerous studies over the past decadehave documented the benefits of mindfulness skills to adults (p.139).The authors suggest there is little documented information regardingthe efficacy of MBSR for children (p.139). They describe the study byfirst presenting contexts of previous research relating to the topicand then explaining the outline and age appropriate adaptationsconceived in their development of the MBSR for children program(p.142). The authors articulate their goals for the reader, whichinclude providing an overview of the modified MBSR program forchildren as well as reporting preliminary findings (p. 139).

Thisresearch study’s purpose was to determine the expediency of theMBSR program with children and to measure the impact of thechild-parent course on participants (p. 154). The study goalsinclude (1) feasibility of mindfulness training for families and (2)to measure the psychological changes predicted as outcomes frommindfulness-based training (p.154).

Thechapter contributes to the research by providing a beautifullydesigned age appropriate adaptation of the MBSR program for children. By focusing their study on the reduction of stress among theschool-age children, the authors explore a different angle for theapplication of the MBSR program. Early study results show proveneffectiveness of the mindfulness-based stress reduction program forboth children and parents. Children experienced increased compassionand decreased self-judgment, while parents also experienced increasedcompassion, and reduced anxiety, depression and self-judgment.

Thechapter provides an examination of challenges faced when conducting amindfulness based stress reduction program for parents and children. Which includes the need for a strong focus on movement versustalking, to maintain child participant, engagement and interest(p.157). Moreover, parent’s expectations of the program’sbenefits and their need for specific outcomes was challenging. Facilitators worked to encourage parents to be role models, lessattached to outcomes, and more engaged in the practices with theirchildren applying mindfulness practices into their own life (p.157).As a result, the study offers significant information for use inresearch and contributes to the understanding of the use of the MBSRprogram in positive outcomes among school-age children and theirparents.

Someof the study limitations include the study results are preliminaryfacilitators found it is essential to engage parents fully forchildren to achieve the greatest benefit. Furthermore, there is animportant element of understanding the process of mindfulness-basedinterventions, which may make the adaptation of such a program into aclassroom challenging. In conclusion, the chapter offers readers lotsof rich material with excellent preliminary research findings.

Flook,L., Goldberg, S.B., Pinger, L., &amp Davidson, R.J. (2015).Promoting Prosocial Behavior and Self-Regulatory Skills in PreschoolChildren Through a Mindfulness-Based Kindness Curriculum.American Psychological Association,Vol. 51, No. 1, 44–51

Theauthors of this article are experts based at the University ofWisconsin. Lisa Flook is associate scientist at the university, forthe Vice Chancellor for Research and Graduate studies (Universityof Wisconsin–Madison, 2015). An Assistant Scientist, her research interest is in early preventionand intervention, with a focus on mindfulness, to promote wellness(Centre for Investigating Healthy Minds at the Waisman Center, 2015). Simon Goldberg is a graduate student at the university specializingin Psychotherapy, Meta-Analysis and Mindfulness (Goldberg,S.B., 2014). Laura Pinger, MS istrained in facilitating MBSR through the Center for Mindfulness atthe University of Massachusetts (UW Health, 2015). She is anoutreach specialist in the area of educational programing bringingMBSR to teachers, students and parents within the schools (UW Health,2015). Dr. Richard J. Davidson PhD is a highly respected professor ofpsychology and psychiatry, the Director of the Waisman Laboratory forBrain Imaging and Behavior and the Laboratory for AffectiveNeuroscience, and the founder for Investigating Healthy Minds, at theWaisman Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison (Davidson, 2011). These authors portray expertise in their field evident from theeffective way they present the subject matter and discuss theprinciples behind the research.

Thearticle presents research done to explore the promotion ofself-regulatory skills and prosocial behavior in small childrenthrough a curriculum of mindfulness-based kindness. The article opensthe study with a clear abstract that introduces the principles behindthe study. The abstract provides an overview of the problem inquestion and the variables under consideration. The article thenpresents a comprehensive literature research of the topic and thevariables that come into play. The literature review utilizessecondary data from other researchers who have explored the sametopic before. Through the literature review, the authors create anunderstanding, which sets the foundation for the research intodeveloping prosocial behavior, self-regulatory skills andmindfulness-based kindness (p.45).

Thearticle presents the methodology part of the research that makes theresearch a complete study. The study is qualitative study as itinvolves sampling and gathering qualitative results from thepopulation sample. The participants of the research were sevenclassrooms selected from elementary public schools (p.45). With asample size of 99 children, the participants were randomly assignedthe seven classes (p.45). The study explored two groups theexperimental group that undertook the Kindness Curriculum (KC) andthe control group (p. 46). The article further explores the resultsand data analysis collected from the observations of the study (p.45). From the comprehensive qualitative and quantitative analysis,the article concludes the research with a conclusive view of thestudy.

Thisarticle greatly contributes to the current body of research becauseof the study offers a comprehensive exploration into the topic.Moreover, the article provides thorough literature research thatfurther enhances the current study. By focusing on the impact of theKindness Curriculum, the article provides a rich source of secondarydata in regard to the topic. With the keywords including executivefunction, Mindfulness, prosocial behavior, preschool and earlychildhood, the article explores a topic that is relevant forresearch. Therefore, the use of this article contributesappropriately for research.

Thestudy of the students’ response to the Kindness Curriculum givesthe article the authority of the content presented by the authors.According to Breakwell et al (2012), a study that draws conclusionsfrom the actual experiment and the primary observation of principlesbeing researched is more relevant as a source of information thanthat which relies on secondary data. This research uses bothsecondary data from other authors and primary data from theobservation of the 99 student participants involved in the research.In this regard, this article provides an authenticity that makes it areliable literature to use for research.

Whilethe article presents an excellent piece of research with goodcomponents of a successful study, it contains the limitations in theanalysis. The researchers used complex analytical methodologies thatdeviate from the qualitative nature of a research of this kind.According to Breakwell et al (2012), there are some elements of humanbehavior or life phenomenon that are highly qualitative and cannot beentirely quantified. Therefore, relying on the quantitative data andanalysis may lead to deviation from the behavioral focus of thestudy. In addition, the research is limited by the drawing ofconclusion from the extensive quantitative results. However, thearticle is a relevant work to use for research.

Schonert-Reichl,K.A., &amp Lawlor, M.S. (2010). The Effects of a Mindfulness-BasedEducation Program on Pre- and Early Adolescents’ Well-Being andSocial and Emotional Competence. Springer Science+Business Media, LLC2010, MindfulnessDOI 10.1007/s12671-010-0011-8

Theauthors of this article present a study that shows their expertise onthe development of a school based mindfulness program for childrenand youth. Kimberly Schonert-Reichl,is a professor serving in the department of counseling andeducational psychology, as well as special education and human earlylearning partnership at the University of British Columbia (p.1University of British Columbia, 2015). MollyStewart is also a professor at theUniversity of British Columbia and serves as the Department ofEducational and Counseling Psychology and Special Education (p.1). Through their expertise in the field, their application of theprinciples of the school based mindfulness program is evidentlyrelevant for this research.

Thearticle introduces the study through a robust abstract that takes thefirst person form of reporting. Through the abstract, the authorsreport that they used a quasi experiment to explore the effectivenessof the Mindfulness Education program. In addition, the researcherspresent a comprehensive literature review of the topics relating themain variables of the study. The article presents an in-depth studyof the mindfulness-based education program so as to understand itseffect on the human behavior. The literature review also explores theconcepts of social well-being and social and emotional competence.

Thearticle presents the methodology component of a study in adescriptive manner that describes the method used by the researchers.According to the article, the researchers used participants drawnfrom twelve classrooms that represent a profile of a district in aCanadian city (p.4). The participants are in their fourth and seventhgrades in terms of their educational level. The participants engagein the progressive study that required them to fill basic bio-data aswell as educational details (p.5). The article further presents theresults of the study as well as the analysis that uses tables as themethods of presentation. After concise discussion of the findings,the article concludes the research with a summary of the study.

Thearticle provides a relevant material for use in the research due tothe in-depth look at the application of the mindfulness program foryouth education. This article provides relevant information about thedevelopment of a school based mindfulness program for the adolescent.The application of the information in research is important tounderstand the topic from the perspective of the older youth and notjust the pre-school.

Thearticle also presents significant information on the well being ofadolescent as it relates to the mindfulness program. The applicationof the program with the perspective of the well being of theparticipants offers another dimension of the research that is worthexploring (p.7). Also, of importance, is the perspective of theapplication of the program and the social and emotional competence.The wide scope of the research makes the article a great contributionto the research.

However,the article has the limitations of reporting the results of the studyon the participants. The results are provided through a quantitativemeth dither than purely quantitative conclusions of the observation.While the researchers provide a comprehensive analysis of the data,their focus on the quantitative analysis slightly deviates from themain focus of the behavioral observations of the participants.However, the article presents an excellent content for use in theresearch on the topic.

Birdee,G.S., Yeh, G.Y., Wayne, P.M., Phillips,R.S., Davis,R.B., &amp Gardiner,P. (2009). Clinical Applications of Yoga for the PediatricPopulation: A SystematicReview. Acad Pediatr,2009 9 (4): 212–220. e1-9. doi:10.1016

Theauthors of this article are experts in the field psychology andmedical therapies, especially in the pediatric population. BothGurjeet S. Birdee and Gloria Yeh hold an MD and MPH qualificationsand work at the Harvard Medical School Osher Research Center (p.1). In addition, RussellPhillips holds a masters degree whileRoger Davis holds a ScD qualification(p.1). Peter Wayne holds a PhD (p.1).The four experts work in the Division for Research and Education inComplementary and Integrative Medical Therapies at the center. Inaddition, Paula Gardner holds a master’s degree and an MPHqualification and works at the Boston University School of Medicinein the department of family medicine (p.1).

Thearticle provides a sound abstract that describes the overview of thestudy and the research. The abstract restates the objective of thestudy that seeks to evaluate the evidence for clinical applicationsof Yoga in children (p.2). The abstract describes in brief the methodthat is used for the research and the procedures followed. Theabstract also provides an overview of the results that themethodology and the expected conclusions. The abstract provides theoverview with regard to the clinical application of yoga to children.

Thearticle introduces the principles of yoga and its application as aclinical program for children through a literature review. Theliterature review provides arguments and conclusions of the otherresearchers who carried various studies in relation to the topic. Inaddition, the literature review provides the foundation ofunderstanding the principles behind the application of yoga inclinical terms. The development of the study relies upon theknowledge base that is developed by the literature review.

Themethod section describes the methodology that the study adopted inthe research. The research explores different databases forinformation and content of the literature review and understanding ofdifferent principles. The sampling method adopted is a randomized andnon-randomized controlled trial with the participants being below theage of 21 years (p.1). The article provides comprehensive datacollection and analysis section, which provide the results for theresults. The analysis of data involves both quantitative andqualitative presentations of the findings and the relevantconclusions.

Thearticle contributes significantly to research through its extensivestudy of the clinical application of yoga for children. The articleprovides an extensive study of the relationship between the outcomesof the research variables and the use of yoga for children (p.2). Thearticle provides an in-depth look at the literature of the previousstudies and the conclusions made by the researchers. This gives thearticle the relevance and the authenticity in terms of the content.As a result, the article significantly contributes to a research onthe clinical application of yoga for pediatrics.

However,the article is limited by the extent of the literature review that itcovers on the topic. The scope of the literature review is limited byits shallow study on the topic. According to Breakwell et al (2012),a literature review should be comprehensive enough to provide anin-depth review of the principles behind the research. However, thisresearch has a limited scope of the literature review. In addition,the analysis of the data is extremely lengthy for a qualitativeresearch to have. However, the article provides a relevant source ofinformation for research on the topic.

Bluth,K., Campo, R. A., Pruteanu-Malinici, S., Reams, A., Mullarkey, M., &ampBroderick, P. C. (2015). A School-Based Mindfulness Pilot Study forEthnically Diverse At-Risk Adolescents. Mindfulness,1-15.

Thearticle represents a high level of expertise by authors who havespecialized knowledge in their field. Karen Bluth, Rebecca Campo,Sarah Malinici, Amanda Reams, Michael Mullarkey and PatriciaBroderick are all experts in the field of psychology explored in theresearch. Karen Ruth is an NIH postdoctoral fellow at the Universityof North Carolina, working in the integrative medical school at theinstitution (p.1). Rebecca Campo is a professor at the University ofUtah and a PhD holder in social-health psychology (p.1). AmandaReams, Michael Mullarkey and Patricia Broderick are professors withthe degrees and the expertise in social psychology and medicine(p.1).

Thearticle has a clear abstract that introduces the research on theschool-based mindfulness for ethnically diverse and at riskadolescent. The abstract defines the main principles applied in thestudy. The abstract describes the methodology of the research and theanalysis of the results from the study. The article also provides acomprehensive literature review that gives the foundation of theresearch and the basis of the conclusions made. The literature reviewprovides complete definitions of the key terms and keywords thatdevelops the study and forms the basis of the principles behind thestudy. Moreover, the literature review describes the principles thatform the foundation of the study.

Themethodology of the study describes how the study was done and thesamples explored. The study used students from an alternative NorthCarolina high school (p.2). The sample was drawn from the students ofbetween the ninth and twelfth grades. The sample studies thirty-threestudents who provided were drawn from a racially and ethnicallydiverse population from which to explore (p.2). The study includedmales and females, Hispanics, African Americans, Caucasians and otherraces (p.2). The inclusion of all the diverse demographics sought toprovide the appropriate relevance of the topic and the targetpopulation. With a comprehensive analysis of the results, the articlepresents a relevant conclusion of the study.

Thearticle provides a significant contribution to the research. Thecomprehensive literature review provides in-depth information inrelation to the topic and the principles of mindfulness program. Theappropriateness of the application of the relevant principles ofmindfulness program makes the study appropriate for research. Theanalysis of the results from the sample of different demographicpopulations makes the study a valid contribution to the research.

Thestudy of the mindfulness program from the perspective of ethnic andracial diversities makes the article a relevant contribution to theresearch. Through the use of the mindfulness principles, the studygives the research the much-needed diverse view of the principles.The study provides a comprehensive overview of the differences thatthe populations of diverse ethnic and racial backgrounds have (p.4).Therefore, the article provides a relevant content for exploration ofthe research.

Thearticle has the limitation of the analysis and conclusion. The studytends to conclude that the racial differences can be explored throughthe use of a sample from every racial or ethnic grouping. Accordingto Breakwell et al (2012), there are certain aspects of humanbehavior that cannot be generalized by taking the characters of asample. In this study, the researchers explore the samples ofdifferent ethnic and racial populations and derive conclusions out ofthe whole populations from them. In addition, the researchers did notexplore complex results in terms of the comparative aspects of theresults of the different ethnic populations. However, the article isrelevant for research.

Carmody,J. (2009). Evolving Conceptions of Mindfulnessin Clinical Settings. Journalof Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, Volume 23,Number 3 • 2009

Asan associate professor of medicine at the Universityof Massachusetts, the author ofthe article is an expert in medical therapies. He teaches at theuniversity’s medical school at the Departmentof Medicine, Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine. JamesCarmody holds a PhD in medicine (University of Massachusetts, 2015).His expertise in behavioral medicine and his experience in teachingplace him as an appropriate researcher for the topic (University ofMassachusetts, 2015).

Thearticle provides an engaging abstract that describes the overview ofthe research and the study. The abstract gives the outline of thestudy that seeks to understand the evolvingconceptions of mindfulness inclinical settings (p.270). The abstractdescribes the methodology used by the researcher to explore thetopic. The abstract also highlights the procedures followed. Theabstract provides an overview of the results that the methodology andthe expected conclusions. The abstract provides the overview withregard to the clinical application of yoga to children.

Thearticle explores the introduction of mindfulness in the clinicalsetting as the spark of researches on the topic. Through theintroduction, the researcher explores the studies through aliterature review that explores the past research by other authors(p.270). The literature review provides arguments and conclusions ofthe other researchers who carried various studies in relation to theconceptions of mindfulnessin clinical settings.In addition, the literature review provides the foundation ofunderstanding the principles behind evolvingconceptions of mindfulness inclinical terms. The development of the study relies upon theknowledge base that is developed by the literature review. With theuse of essential keywords such as mindfulness, mechanisms,meditation, stress reduction, and attention, the study proves itsrelevancy to this topic. The findings brought forward by the studymake highly appropriate to be adopted in the school mindfulnessprogram.

Thestudy in the article is a literature review that researches secondarydata regarding the evolving conceptionsof mindfulness. This means that themethodology of research by James is a comprehensive literature reviewof the methods adopted by other researchers. This makes the researcha study of the secondary data in relation to evolvingconceptions of mindfulness in clinical settings.The book further studies the data used by other authors and thesample size they used in deriving their conclusions on the use ofmindfulness program in the reduction of stress.

Thestudy contributes relevant information for research. Through theliterature review, the article greatly contributes to the research byproviding an in-depth review of the application of the mindfulnessprogram in clinical settings (p.271). By focusing his study on theapplication in clinical settings, James explores a different aspectof the mindfulness program. The study by James shows that themindfulness is a relevant concept that is applicable to theeffectiveness of the clinical settings. In addition, the researchstrives to explain the extent to which mindfulness training exhibitsimilar methods with other body-mind programs.

Theliterature review in the article further provides a relevantcontribution to the understanding of the different factors that comeinto play in regard to mindfulness and applications in the clinicalsetting (p.274). Through the study, James presents relevant findingsby other researchers who explored the concepts of mindfulness inclinical settings. Through the literature review, James providesrelevant information for the research on the topic. According toGiles(2013), this is because thearticle has views from an integration of different findings ofdifferent researchers on the topic. As a result, the article isrelevant for use in research and contributes to the understanding ofthe use of the mindfulness program clinical settings.

However,the article is limited by the lack of research on the population togive the study some primary data. The entire study is done by relyingon what other researchers finding in their previous studies. It isworth noting that these studies were done under different contextsand circumstances, and to solve certain research needs. Therefore,using the findings of to draw conclusions leads to development ofconclusions based on the results of previous research. According toBreakwell et al (2012), reliance on secondary data leads to thedependence on the conclusions made by others in different contexts ofa study. Despite the limitations the article provides relevantmaterial to be used in research, either in current times or in thefuture.

Chambers,R., Eleonora, G., Craig, H., Wendy, K., Garvin, T., &amp Allen, N.(2014). Mindful Emotion Regulation Predicts Recovery in DepressedYouth.Mindfulness, DOI 10.1007/s12671-014-0284-4

Theauthors of this article are experts in the field of clinicalpsychology. Dr. Richard Chambers is an endorsed clinical psychologist(p.1). Eleonora Gullone is an associate professor of medicine and apsychology researcher at the psychological center of MonashUniversity (p.1). Dr. Craig Hassed is a senior lecture at theDepartment of General Practice in Monash University (p.1). TracyGarvin is an honorary tutor at the Melbourne school of Psychology(p.1). Dr. Wendy Knight is a clinical psychologist who works as amindfulness cognitive consultant (p.1). Nicholas Allen is a clinicalpsychologist at the Melbourne school of Psychology (p.1). All theauthors are expert in mindfulness consultants who practice to helppeople in the application of the program in clinical psychology.

Theabstract of the article introduces the study through a description ofthe topic and the objective of the study. Through this, the authorsreport the problem of depression among the adolescent youth and theinterventions possible (p.1). The researchers investigated thevirtual benefits of character mindfulness in contrast to othertypically researched ER strategies, expressive inhibition, andcognitive review. In addition, the researchers present acomprehensive literature review of the main keywords and principlesrelating to the study. The article presents a comprehensive study ofthe mindfulness-based education program so as to understand itseffect on the cognitive nature of the adolescent. The literaturereview also explores the emotional nature of mindfulness.

Themethodology component of the study is presented in a descriptivemanner that discusses the method used by the researchers. Theresearchers used participants drawn from people with the condition ofmajor depressive episode (MDE) (p. 4). The participants used in theresearch are aged between 15 and 25 years. In the study, a sample of107 participants was used, out of which, thirty-two males andseventy-five females (p 4). To collect data and information, theresearchers used an Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, the Mood andAnxiety Symptoms Questionnaire and the Mindful Awareness AttentionScale (p.4). The article further presents the results of the studyand the analysis that uses tables as the methods of presentation. Thearticle concludes the research with a summary of the authors afterconcise discussion of the findings.

Thearticle contributes greatly to the research through its in-depth lookat the topic. The study provides relevant material for use in theresearch due to the investigation of the mindfulness program and theissue of youth depression (p.5). This article provides relevantinformation about the development of a mindfulness program foraddressing the depression problem among the adolescent. Theapplication of the information in research is therefore important tohandle depression from the perspective of the youth which is a vitalcomponent of this topic discussion.

Thisstudy is highly relevant to the topic, since it is helpful inproviding the assumption that dispositional mindfulness is a uniqueelement of ER and has a significant repercussion for mentalwellbeing. The article also contributes to the understanding of therecovery of adolescent from depression through the mindfulnessprogram. The application of the program with the perspective ofhealing the participants from depression gives another dimension ofbeneficially using the mindfulness concept. The research provides theperspective of the application of the program that makespsychologists understand the need to use mindfulness in solvingemotional issues. The wide scope of the researchers and the studymakes the article a contribution to the research. The study hashighlighted deep knowledge and information that had eluded manyresearch topics before. It provides important vital information onthe strong relationship between mindfulness and depression andanxiety.

Despitethe excellent research, the article is limited in reporting theresults of the study on the participants. The article provides theresults in a quantitative manner rather than qualitative conclusionsof the observation. However, the researchers provide a comprehensiveanalysis of the data. In their analysis, their focus is on thequantitative analysis slightly more than the qualitative. Thisdeviates from the main focus of the behavioral observations of theparticipants, but presents the information. All in all, the excellentcontent in the article makes it relevant for use in the researchdevelopment of a school based mindfulness program for children andyouth. Furthermore limitations included the instruments under whichthe cognitive ER and mindfulness scale were obtained. As the studyindicates the two scales came from different instruments andtherefore, the method’s inconsistency may have assisted to theuniqueness of the mindfulness finding.

Costello,E., &amp Lawler, M. (2014). An Exploratory Study of the Effects ofMindfulness on Perceived Levelsof Stress among school-children from lower socioeconomicbackgrounds. InternationalJournal of Emotional Education, Volume6, Number 2, November 2014 pp 21-39

Theauthors of the article are experts in the field of medicalpsychology, as well as the application of mindfulness. Elizabeth JaneCostello is a Professor of Medical Psychology and works at the DukeUniversity in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences(Duke University, 2015). On the other hand, Margaret Lawler holds amasters degree in health psychology and is a lecturer at St.Patrick’s College. This makes the authors the experts in exploringthe objective of the study in the article.

Theabstract of the study highlights the effects of stress and otherrelated socio-emotional hardships on the children’s academicfulfillment. It describes the objective of the study, the methodsused for research and an overview of the expected results (p.21). Thearticle presents a comprehensive literature review that explores theperspectives of previous researchers in relation to the topic. In theliterature review, the authors study the effect of mindfulness on thereduction of stress on school going children. However, the studyrelied more on the opinions and suggestions of the teachers ratherthan the children’s own account leading to inaccuraterepresentation of data. The literature review further explores theapplication of mindfulness in relation to other stress levels inchildren, especially those from lowersocioeconomic backgrounds.

Thearticle presents a study with a clear and simplified method section.The study follows an interpretative qualitative methodology so as togain an in depth analysis of children’s familiarity withmindfulness as a way of eradicating stress. It involves sampling andgathering of qualitative results from the population. The sample usedwas of 63 primary level children with 46 girls and 17 boys, all fromthe 6thgrade (p.25). The participants of the research were drawn from twoschools in Dublin, Ireland after relevant approvals from authorities.The schools were at risk of exclusion due to socioeconomic status.With a sample size of 67 children, four teachers took part in themindfulness program while two teachers interviewed the children(p.25). The study explored the mindfulness intervention program witha view of presenting the results of data analysis resulting from theobservations. The research used both quantitative and qualitativeanalysis. From the comprehensive analysis, the article concludes theresearch with the findings and recommendations of the study.

Theextent with which the study explores the topic makes it greatlyrelevant to the research on the topic. The article provides acomprehensive literature research that gives light to the study onthe effect of mindfulness with children from lower socioeconomicbackgrounds. By focusing more on the impact of the mindfulnessintervention program, the article provides a rich source ofinformation in regard to the application of the concept to children.With the focus of the study on Mindfulness, socioeconomicbackgrounds, stress levels, and social exclusion, the study exploresthe concepts that are relevant for research (p.21). Therefore, theuse of this article for current and future research highlyrecommended.

Thestudy contributes to research by exploring different concepts thatrelate to the effect of mindfulness on stress status of children. Thefocus of the study of the children from lower socioeconomicbackgrounds gives the article a wide scope of the content presentedby the authors. According to Breakwell et al (2012), a study thatdraws conclusions from the actual experiment of the target populationgives relevant outcomes. At the same time, Giles(2013) argues that primaryobservation of principles being researched is more relevant as asource of information than that which relies on secondary data. Thisresearch explores both the secondary data from the comprehensiveliterature review, and primary data from the observation of the 67participants used in the research. Therefore, the article providesthe authenticity and content that makes the literature reliable.

However,the article is not conclusive in terms of generalizations made fromthe observations. Costello and Lawler (2010), state that the study islimited by its insufficiency in terms of the observations availableto make general conclusions about the entire population. Despiteproviding an excellent piece of research with the good literaturereview and experimental study, it contains conclusions that cannot beused to generalize the entire population. However, this is because ofthe complex human characteristics that vary from population topopulation. According toGiles (2013), some elements ofhuman life, human behavior or life phenomenon is complex andqualitative to be generalized by observations of samples. Inaddition, the over reliance of the study on the observations of theteachers makes it loose its objective. It was meant to study thestress levels in children in the lower socio-economic structure, andby relying on their teachers’ rather than their own account it didnot give a clear representation of the actual situation. However, thearticle contributes to research by providing relevant work to use forcurrent and future research.

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