Priorthe human rights movements the United States was a segregatednation. The black people were not given the rights to choose theleaders of their own. The white men could easily find their way toWashington and also white house because they took advantage of theblack community that was powerless. This prompted the black communityactivists namely Malcolm and Martin Luther to mobilize the blacks todo something. They came up with speeches with that convinced theblack man to fight.
Humanrights activists such as Malcolm and Martin Luther King initiateddifferent approaches and views and how the people were going to beliberated from the chains of segregation. Both of them had a commonfeeling that the black people needed a solution to their problems.The best approach was what drew the line between both of them. Thiscreates a wide study and analysis of how this issue was tackled bythe two people. The main idea was to help the black community fightfor their inclusion. The people had common problems from the whites’mistreatment and non-compliance to the laws that defined the rightsof the Black people. Martin Luther advocated for black people to usenon violence means, while Malcolm X advocated for use of force inorder for the black people to attain their rights.
Kingasserted that injustice in one part of America as a root forinjustice in every other part. He majorly focuses on nonviolencedemonstration as the secret weapon towards resolving the problem ofthe Negroes in the United States. This was a response to the claim bythe Albama Clergy men who reprimanded king for urging the people todemonstrate terming it untimely and also unwise. He said that he wasgoing to emulate Paul who went around preaching the gospel in thequest of bringing people close to God in his endeavors to carry thegospel of freedom around and beyond his town. He strongly believesthat no person found within the boundaries of America should beconsidered an outsider for any reason. There was a great segregationin Birmingham and King was fighting hard to ensure that desegregationdemonstrations were to happen to demand justice for the people. Kingopted for this desperate measure of demonstration after the leadersrefused to listen to their grievances by advocating for nonviolentcampaigns. Birmingham, according to King, was the most segregatedstate in the United States. He establishes the brutality that theNegroes faced, whereby their houses were constantly bombed. Theeconomic merchants also broke their promise of removing racial signsdespite the deal they had previously made.
MalcolmX, on the other hand, states that the segregation of the people inthe United States could only be solved through the ballot or thebullet. He asserts that a white man cannot use a black man to acquirevotes from them. He states that the time when the white men couldbribe them was long gone and that the people had to take charge. Forfull desegregation, people had to control the economic operations oftheir communities. Malcolm viewed a white man as the enemy to theNegroes community. He argues that the black people should be unifiedand stops mingling with the white people. He illustrates this bygiving a good example of how the black people were making the whitesrich through exploitation. He asserts that the Negroes shouldestablish their own premises and expand them until they had a totalcontrol of the community’s economic operations. This is whatinitiated the formation of a political philosophy of BlackNationalism. He suggests that for the people to acquire fullliberation, they should not just sit but gain this throughnationalism. He uses examples of continents like Asia and Africa whoused nationalism to gain their liberalization (Malcom).
Kingviews freedom as the ability of people to gain their liberalizationand be given their rights. He terms unjust laws as the laws thatoppresses the minority and denies them the rights such as the rightsto vote hence, his vision was to see that injustice was rootedcompletely out of determined, persistent, and strong action. Howeverhis demonstration majorly aimed at causing economic crisis to themerchants by initiating a direct action which was nonviolent. Heviews this as a nonviolent campaign that will build a constructivetension for economic growth. He compares this to the mental tensionthat the Socrates is causing on the mind of the black people. Thepack of crisis could lead to the Socrates opening doors fornegotiation. He illustrates this by giving an example of the leadersMr. Boutwell and Mr. Conor are both segregationist but hopes that oneof them will see the light although they are dedicated to theirstatus quo. He clearly states that they should see the necessity toadjust their attitude and concept on how they were treating theNegroes. He also notes that the people have suffered enough and theirpatience was running out (King).
Malcolmasserts the freedom of the Negroes can only be solved by the Negroesthrough nationalism. He does not base be his argument with the legallaws in governance since those who were in power were the whitepeople and were the enemies of the Negroes. He sees the only solutionto the problems the black people were facing as education. This wasmeant to encourage them about the importance of venturing intobusiness and employing their own selves and stop relying on the whiteman for jobs. He also indicates that they suffered in the hands ofGeorge Washington and yet the black people were still submissive tohim. He points out clearly that despite the number of representationsthey had in the House of Representatives, they continue to suffer.The clear illustration was the 16 senatorial committees and 20congressional committees. From the 16 senatorial committees that runthe government, 10 of them are in the hands of the southernsegregation and 20 in the congressional committees that run thegovernment are for the southern segregationist.
Inconclusion, the measures taken by both King and Malcolm were aimed atensuring that the fight for desegregation in the United States tookplace. They took different approaches in addressing the Negroes onwhat they should do to liberate themselves from segregation that hadtaken root in the United States. King majored his argument in amoderate way by establishing that the best way to acquiredesegregation was to initiate a nonviolent campaign that was majorlygoing to affect the merchants through economic demonstrations.Malcolm concept was wholly on the fact that the people had to fightfor their liberation. He established that the only way this was goingto be achieved was through the ballot or the bullet. By implying tothis Malcolm wanted to send a message that the people had the powerto determine who was going to get to the white house. The bullet wasa clear symbol that if the white men were not going to heed to theirgrievances, then they were going to engage in a bloodshed warfarethat could liberate them. He gave an example of countries like Korea,Chinese, Russian Cuban and Algeria who used no sophisticated weaponsto liberate them due to insufficiency in technology and ended upearning their freedom from the colonialists. This is a clearindication that there was parallelism in the view of what freedom wasand also the best method that could otherwise been used to end theera of segregation.
TheUnited States seemingly acquired her independence from hercolonialist. However it still had a major issue of segregation of theNegroes. The aforementioned faced numerous challenges thatspecifically violated their rights as the civic citizens of theUnited States. Their freedoms were constrained as the white peoplewho were in leadership denied them their rights including the rightsto vote. Any form of discrimination that was done to Negroes neverraised any need for measures to be put in place to curb disparitybetween the Negroes and the white men.
Asa necessity to liberate the Negroes from the Bondage of segregationMartin Luther King and Malcolm X stood out as the key embodiment ofreason for the Negroes communities. Their brave move to counter thesegregation in the Negroes communities was viewed as a possiblethreat to the white men. Consequently a civil right activist likeKing was put behind bars. Despite the odds, Malcolm and King ralliedfor desegregation using different views and approaches. King was areligious man and based his bid to end the troubles of the blackpeople through the use of nonviolent demonstrations that aimed atputting pressure on the administrators to reconsider removingsegregation. This, as such, could also lead to economic crisis forthe merchants of the white men. Malcolm X on the other hand calledupon the Black people to stop sitting down but rise to their feet andfight for their liberation. His main slogan was the ballot or thebullet. The white man and his religion were all a white man’snationalism. He aimed at teaching the Negroes that their freedom waspurely within their means since they were the majority in thesegregated United States. They needed their freedom and they couldconspire to achieve it by all means. They were to get their freedomeither through a democratic or a revolutionary way.
KingLuther M. Letter from Birmingham jail. Birmingham, 1963.
MalcolmX. The Ballot or the Bullet. Detroit. April 4, 1964.