“Francesca S. (2013). Queer Space, Pride, and Shame in Moscow.Slavic Review 72.3: 458-480.”

Francesca notes that discussions of Moscow as an international townhave largely concentrated on its expanding global relevance andpolitical-economic link. Minimal focus has been on the culturalprofile, of how well the city handles multicultural diversity. Anysuccessful international city must have in place policies thatsupport multicultural activity as well as cosmopolitan beliefs.Hence, it is possible to question the classification of Moscow as aglobal city considering its lack of consideration towardsmulticulturalism. This is best explains by the authors use of queerspace within Russia. Queer space refers to the space LGBT occupy as asubculture group in society. Francesca notes that the LGBT communityis compelled to create their own spaces through which they are ableto negotiate rights.

There are two kinds of queer space, scene and Moscow Pride. Scene isthe places where LGBT clients are able to meet. Moscow Pride is agreatly noticeable appropriation of city space by the LGBT society.The latter has been recurrently prohibited in Moscow, resulting inhostile reactions, which brings about a city that demonstrates nofriendliness to gay people. Despite being a global city, it does notcelebrate diversity. Some people in society have to live with thefact that they cannot get their rights, mainly the LGBT society. Tofight for their rights, the LGBT have been organized in queer space.

The article relates to the essay on citizen rights in Russia. Itexplains how not all civilians are able to enjoy their rights mainlybecause of their diversity or sexuality. Hence, have been compelledto resort to activism and revolutions for pushing their rights to berealized and granted by authorities.

“Hemment, J. (2007). Empowering women in Russia: Activism, aid,and NGOs (pp. 1-75). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.”

The author presents their view on international aid, as well asdonor groups in their promotion of post-socialist Russia’s femaleactivist. Hemment evaluates Russia’s experience concerning womenemancipation recognized from the Bolshevik Revolution. Hence, it isapparent that rights issues facing Russian women have been inexistence for many years. Women have faced many challenges rangingfrom unfair working conditions. They have partly been capable offighting for their rights due to assistance from international aid.This is made possible via donor actions like gender mainstreaming orgendered intervention, which explain the approached donors use toencourage women activism.

The author informs that women activism has not always been easy.There has been opposition from stakeholders in Russia, whodemonstrate their suspicion on women organizing. Althoughinternational aid and donor support has been important in helpingwomen push for their rights, the article informs that they fail inmeeting the needs of women in the grassroots. On the other hand,government has endeavored to use constraint policies, which limitpublic spending. As a result, women are unable to get the neededsupport to fight for their rights. These constraints have compelledwomen to organize themselves in groups that ensure they voice theirconcerns and at the same time empower themselves.

The book relates to the topic of citizen rights in Russia byevaluating how women have resorted to activism to ensure womenempowerment. From the reading, it is apparent that women in Russia,from historic times, have faced much infringement of their rights,for instance, poor working conditions. Through international aid andNGOs, the women have formed activist groups, as a way of fighting fortheir rights.


Francesca S. (2013). Queer Space, Pride, and Shame in Moscow. SlavicReview 72.3: 458-480.

Hemment, J. (2007). Empowering women in Russia: Activism, aid, andNGOs (pp. 1-75). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.